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Tema: Orange blossom going, cinnamon returning

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    Orange blossom going, cinnamon returning

    Orange blossom going, cinnamon returning
    Orange blossom set out from Seville, in the form of sweet essence... with a hint of bitterness, and in return, Manila sent cinnamon, in the form of oriental flavour. The galleon was loaded with cargo in the Orient, and set sail again for the Western world. Once more, it stopped off at Acapulco, in Mexico and in Veracruz, but this time there was another important and significant stop-off, in Havana, "the pearl of the Caribbean". It was there that all the ships gathered before setting sail together for Spain, each vessel carrying merchandise, people, ideas, etc., gathered from America and Asia and bound for Europe. Chinese silks and spices from the East Indies were shipped from the Philippines to Mexico, Cuba, Seville and Cádiz. The return voyage eventually reached Seville, which in 1717 ceded part of its American and Philippine trading market to another city closer to the sea and of a more seafaring nature: Cádiz. The longevity and persistence of this transoceanic route came to an end in 1813, when Mexico, one of the essential territories on its stop-off route, gained independence. The Suez Canal was opened later. The galleon has returned. With a cargo of new cultural ideas and common history, it draws the Western world and the Orient closer to one another, across the oceans and crossing space and time. An inter-cultural voyage allowing both worlds to get to know and acknowledge one another. With sails like lighted candles, unfurled and catching the wind, the galleon leaves port once more.
    Intercontinental map showing the outward and return sea routes used between Spain and Manila. Alejo Berlinguero. 1772. AGI As from the end of the 18th century, the vessels of the Spanish armada sailing for the Philippines followed the route which passed round Africa and across the Indian Ocean, which was different from the route followed by the Manila galleon which crossed the Atlantic to America, and then crossed the Pacific.

    Map of the sea route followed by the pilot Francisco Xavier Estorgo y Gallegos on his voyage from Manila to New Spain. 1770. AGI The round trip or return voyage commenced in July or August in order to take advantage of the monsoon season winds and the Kuro-Sivo currents. The galleon reached Acapulco in December or January after a long voyage. On arrival there, a large part of the merchandise it carried still had to cross America and then be transported from Havana to Seville and Cádiz.

    View of the port and bay at Cádiz. SGE In 1717 Cádiz officially replaced Seville as the control point for interoceanic trading with America and the Philippines. In a very short space of time the city underwent a great increase in prosperity.

    View of the port of Havana. MN Havana enters the era of progress: the old sails are replaced by steam funnels.

    View of the city and bay of Havana. MN Until free trading with the Indies was introduced at the end of the 18th century, Havana held a monopoly over the exit from America of Spanish vessels bound for the Peninsula. Its bay was the anchorage for all the fleets arriving from Veracruz, Cartagena de Indias and all the ports on the Caribbean coasts before they set out together on the return trip.

    74-cannon vessel drawn by Agustín Berlinguero for the Álbum marino which was drawn up by Cesáreo Fernández Duro. MN The strategic defence of the Overseas provinces also implied the need to provide an infraestructure that would serve the warships of the Spanish Crown

    Samples of the country's produce. La Ilustración Española y Americana. 1888. BN Philippine trading activity spread out over the whole of its surrounding geographical area. This photograph shows a range of samples of natural and industrial products which was prepared for presentation to the Japanese government.

    The days of the future spread out before us like a string of lighted candles, candles that are golden, warm and full of life. The days of the past are left behind, their candles a mournful, burnt out string, the whisp of smoke still curling from the more recent bygone days, cold, twisted candles to be cast away. I look ahead at the lighted candles before me. Kavafis


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    Seville, a Universal City
    For centuries, Seville was the city from which voyages departed from the West to the East, across the Atlantic, the Americas and the Pacific routes.

    During the 16th and 17th centuries, Seville was a centre for European trade besides becoming a wealthy and cosmopolitan city ranking third among European trading centres and it was the place where western art and cultural influences could be both exchanged and disseminated.
    At that time, Seville was referred to as "the port which was the gateway to the New World", as for centuries monopoly of communications across the oceans had been held by the Spaniards.
    Seville was an "archive of world wealth", and for over two hundred years it channelled the exchange of precious metals, products and knowledge between the Old World and the New.
    To begin with, as a centre of world economy interests, Seville changed its urban style in accordance with Renaissance ideas, and later adopted the Baroque style.
    It was the city of Seville that set in motion a relationship between the overseas territories of the Spanish Crown through the medium of the "Casa de Contratación" Indies Trading Tribunal (1503), which coordinated the "Indies run" fleets, provided training for navigators and issuing navigation licences. This institution decided the routes to be followed, and regulated the traffic of individuals and merchandise, and was the most important cartographic centre of those times.

    The Great Babylon of Spain:
    a "home from home" for all nations.

    Luis de Góngora

    The course of the Guadalquivir River from Seville to its mouth. 18th century. Seville Town Council. The port of Seville, washed by the Guadalquivir River and 90 kilometers from the coast -and in later times the port of Cádiz as from 1717- were for centuries the principal trading channels for the precious metals, produce and knowledge exchanged between the Old World and the New.

    Panoramic view of Seville from Triana. 1617. The British Museum

    Practically the whole length of the river was a port, and in the city there were some wharfs which were mostly in the area of "Arenal" and on the opposite bank in the Triana area, where there were docks for ship repair and careening, and where loading and unloading operations could take place.

    The "Casa del Cabildo" (Town Hall) in Seville and the Corpus Christi procession. Attributed to Pedro Tortolero. 1738. BN In the 16th century, a splendid Town Hall building had been constructed in accordance with plans drawn up by Diego Riaño. The rich plateresque-style decoration thath was applied above the two storeys which incorporated colonnades and large windows which were later extended in a simpler and less ornamental style- converted this type of stone architecture into a city symbol.

    The "Hospital de la Sangre" (The Hospital of the Blood) in Seville. Attributed to Pedro Tortolero. 1738. BN.This was also known as the "Hospital de las Cinco Llagas" (Hospital of the Five Wounds). This Renaissance-style building was constructed during the 16th and 17th centuries and became one of the largest in Europe.

    View of Cádiz. 1782. MN.In the 18th century a new wind of change was evident. This began in Cadiz with the founding of the "Casa de Contratación" after 1717. This change of city venue was a consequence of the increasing difficulties experienced in river navigation along the Guadalquivir. This city, now with fortification walls, was to find itself in the 1700's the favourite, and held practically exclusive rights over overseas trading until 1778.

    The "Lonja de comercio" (trading market) with the Cathedral in the background. Pieter van den Berge in Theatrum hispaniae ... Amsterdam, 1700-1705. BN. The "Lonja de comercio", symbol of the trading relationship existing between Seville and the New World is today the home of the "Archivo General de Indias", where from 1785 onwards the most important documents concerning Hispano-American history are kept.

    Main façade of Seville Cathedral. Attributed to Pedro Tortolero. 1738. BN

    View of Seville. This oil painting is attributed to Alonso Sánchez Coello. 16th century. Museo de América. Seville was the product of the successive presence of ancient civilizations: known as Hispalis by the Tartessians, Iulia Romula by the Romans, Spali by the Visigoths, Isbiliya by the moors of Al-Andalus and in later times as Seville by the Christians; during the 16th and 17th centuries it was considered to be a "New Rome".

    A 16th century view of Seville. Georg Braum and Frans Hogenber in Civitatis Orbis Terrarum. Cologne, 1572-1617. BN. Seville, a top-ranking city during the 16th and 17th centuries, with its 150,000 inhabitants, came to occupy third place among European cities after London and Paris.


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    A world linked by the sea
    In early times, the sea was more of a barrier than a means of communication: it was an element that separated rather than united peoples. Developments in navigation techniques became instrumental in communications between each of the four corners of the globe.
    Pablo E. Pérez Mallaína.

    During the "great era of geographical discovery", Portuguese and Spanish navigators and sailors were finally able to define the face of the Earth. Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic Ocean and discovered America. Vasco da Gama travelled in the opposite direction, going round the southern tip of Africa and reaching India. Magellan and Elcano were the first to sail around the world.
    The art of sailing was based upon acquired knowledge of distances, ocean currents, and the prevailing winds encountered along the routes, all of which were invaluable in the era of sailing ships.
    The determination of navigators and sailors, an unrivalled desire for discovery, and a wise use of new geographical knowledge all combined to create the necessary conditions for establishing a tremendously long transoceanic route which was to have far-reaching consequences, with all the hazards and opportunities that this entailed. The western world could finally meet up with the Orient across the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean sea routes.

    Model of the Santa María ship. MMB. This vessel was built at the shipyards in the north of Spain. It was the flagship of Christopher Columbus on his voyage of discovery to the West Indies, reaching the north coast of La Española in the early hours of 25 December 1492.

    Atlas by Abraham Cresques. 1375. SGE. The "Catalan Atlas" is the work of a Jew from Mallorca and was drawn up on the basis of old descriptions and the chronicles of great travellers such as Marco Polo (1298), Jean de Mandeville (1357-1371), and the rabbi Benjamin de Tudela (1160-1173).

    Globe by Marin von Behaim. SGE. Called "The Apple Earth" by the person who made it, it shows us a complete image of the world as it was known shortly before the discovery of America. Of all the globes that are still preserved, this is the oldest. It has been reproduced several times as a sphere, and on other occasions in flat, map form, as seen in this picture.

    Typus Orbis Terrarum. Joan Martines. 1587. MMC (facs.) A world map drawn by hand on parchment and coloured, which includes the names of the winds. The planimetry includes river courses and large surfaces of water, besides population settlements, all represented in the conventional manner.

    Map of Europe and Asia. AHN. On the long transoceanic voyage, the Spanish navigators, among them Legazpi and Urdaneta, took advantage of the winds and ocean currents of the Pacific, which carried them to the Philippines.


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    The longest transoceanic route
    Spain organized the"Indies run" from the port of Seville. This comprised a network of communications that for the first time acquired planetary dimensions; it meant that every year the thousands of kilometres separating the Philippines from Europe would be covered by shipping routes.

    In the early decades of the 16th century, the sailing routes operating between Seville and America were covered by single vessels. As from 1526, the "Casa de Contratación" decreed that all vessels should leave in fleets rather than on an individual basis.
    "The Fleet" had a single trading route to the Antilles. Later, it was divided into two convoys which had different destinations: the Antilles and the coasts of the Caribbean and Vera Cruz. On their return trip, the galleons were to be found anchored in the port of Havana before sailing back to Seville.
    Around 1576, the Pacific route linking Acapulco with Manila was established.
    The galleon trip, which involved 30,000 kilometres on the outward voyage and the same distance on the return trip, practically encircled the globe.
    In 1717, Cádiz replaced Seville as the principal port city, but monopoly of port installations and trading facilities continued. In 1778 the Free Trade Regulations came into effect and permitted trading with other ports, and in 1789 the fleets system disappeared.
    A new structure for the merchant navy was created, and this worked on the basis of consulates and maritime companies, including the Philippines Trading Company. In 1815, the Manila galleon run closed down, and in 1869 the Suez Canal was opened. Other routes were established and the different worlds became united through different sea routes.

    16th century galleon. Brueghel the Elder Collection. MN. During the 16th century, the light caravels used on voyages of discovery and the first ocean-going vessels stepped aside to make way for ships with larger capacity and tonnage such as the robust galleons that plied the Indies run..

    16th century ship. Brueghel the Elder Collection. MN. Overseas trading called for the development of solid, stable ships able to withstand the heavy ocean swell, well equipped with sails and capable of carrying a large amount of dead weight such as artillery, provisions and merchandise.

    World map. Tomás López. 1792. MN. Atlas containing the description of the globe.

    The city of Veracruz. Descripciones geographicas e hydrograficas de muchas tierras y mares del Norte y del Sur, en las Indias, en especial del descubrimiento del reino de California. By Nicolás de Cardona. 1632. BN. View of Veracruz, an arrival and departure enclave for merchandise and passengers, with its castle and the quayside for small-tonnage vessels that was built on the bay, drawn according to the manuscript written by its author during the reign of Philip III.

    Title page of the Derrotero de los pilotos Jaymes Martinez y Diego Martín del Viage... 1565. AGI This is a nautical map or book of sea routes and courses used in the 16th century which contains drawings of the islands of Barbados and Ladrones, as well as showing the voyage to the Philippines undertaken by Miguel López de Legazpi.

    "Carta universal" drawn up by Juan de la Cosa, grand master and owner of the Santa María. 1500. MN. This is the oldest cartographic work preserved showing the American continent. It represents the geographical knowledge of the era, and includes the discoveries of Columbus, Ojeda, Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, and John and Sebastian Caboto.

    Maps of the ports and routes used for free trading during the 18th century, according to Céspedes del Castillo 1.Pensacola, 2. San Blas, 3. Santisteban del Puerto, 4. Remedios, 5. Santiago de Cuba, 6. Batabano, 7. Montecristi, 8. Santo Domingo, 9. Coatzacoalcos, 10. Tehuantepec, 11. Campeche, 12. Santo Tomás, 13. Puerto Caballos, 14. Acajutla, 15. Realejo, 16. Santa Marta, 17. Rio Hacha, 18. Maracaibo, 19. Puerto Cabello, 20. La Guaira, 21. Isla Margarita, 22. Puerto España (Trinidad), 23. Guayaquil, 24. Piura, 25. Pacasmayo, 26. Pisco, 27. Arica, 28. Chilo, 29. Maldonado. Map of the sea routes used during the 17th century, according to Pierre Chaunu Map of the sea routes used after the middle of the 16h century, according to Céspedes del Castillo Map of the principal sea routes used during the first third of the 16th century, according to Céspedes del Castillo

    The route of the Victoria ship, according to José Luis Morales. MN.This vessel was used by Magellan for the voyage which set out from Seville in 1519 and which was to lead him to discover the strait that bears his name, and then on to discover the Philippines.


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    Sailing on and on
    Navigation was based on advances in the science of cartography and their dissemination in printed form. Navigation techniques evolved as a result of the invention of specific instruments for this purpose.

    The primitive navigation chart was the "portolanic map", which showed the routes and was drawn up in the shape of a spider's web.
    The cartographic revolution began in 1569 when Gerard Mercator published his first nautical charts and atlas with the "cylindrical" projection, which was a new way of showing the world map.
    In ancient times, an experienced navigator calculated both speed and the distance covered by "guesswork"; those were the days of "fantasy sea voyages".
    However, in the 15th century, the "navigating needle" was in general use. This was a compass which made it easier to follow sea routes. The distance covered was calculated using an "hourglass" containing sand.
    The speed of the vessel was calculated by means of a piece of apparatus using rope marked out with equidistant knots or metal discs.
    The problem of fixing geographical location was resolved with the use of the "astrolabe", which made it possible to measure the angle of the sun and that of the pole star. Advances in the development of these instruments made such calculations easier and more precise, for example: the "course protractor", the "cuadrant", the "octant and the sextant", and the "longitude clock", which was a precision chronometer.
    The "art of navigating" became a technical science, and news of it was spread through navigation treatises. From 1519 onwards (the Suma Geográfica, by Fernández de Enciso) a significant number of contributions to this science were written by Spaniards.

    Regimiento de navegación. Andrés García de Céspedes. Madrid, 1605. MN. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, it was the Spaniards and the Portuguese who systematically compiled, developed and expounded upon the theory and practice of navigation. The work of Céspedes corrected the errors of earlier treatises and this became one of the most important nautical treatises of the period. Title page of the Compendio de navegación. Jorge Juan. Cádiz, 1757. MN. Jorge Juan, together with Ensenada, was the great pioneer of all initiatives undertaken in an effort to reorganize the Armada, and was one of the major exponents of science in Spain in the 18th century. Works such as this meant that the teaching of navigation techniques could undergo reform, and introduced into Spain the latest advances in science of the European Age of Enlightenment.

    16th century astronomical astrolabe. MN. To begin with, the astrolabe was used for the recording of specific celestial phenomena for astronomical and astrological purposes. They were either spherical or flat, these latter being applied to navigation.

    Spanish universal astrolabe. 1563. MN. This was invented in the 11th century by Azarquiel, a native of Toledo. These instruments were used to find the height of the sun or the stars in order to calculate latitude.

    A two-sector quadrant. 18th century. MN. This was used to observe and determine the height of heavenly bodies in order to calculate the latitude of the ship when at sea.

    Nautical quadrant. 16th century. MN. This was one more advance in the search for a solution to the problem of finding the actual geographical position of vessels. As it substituted the spaced-out lines of the astronomical spyglass with graduated arcs, it allowed for greater accuracy.

    Astronomical spyglass. 18th century. MN. This instrument began to be used by pilots in the 16th century for measuring the altitude of the Pole star. It remained in use until the 18th century and comprised a series of plates showing different graduations.

    18th century sextant. MN This is a goniometer or instrument for measuring angles; it was a precision instrument, lightweight and easy to transport, and was used at sea to measure distances by angle and the height of heavenly bodies, which permitted the observer to determine his position.

    Marine chronometer dating from the end of the 18th century. MN With the invention of this instrument, which told the time with a sufficient degree of accuracy, the problem of finding the geographical longitude of the vessel was solved, as this was vital for fixing positions to the east or west of a specific meridian.

    Equinoctial sundial. 1599. MN This instrument showed the time with more accuracy than the hourglass, the clepsydra or the water-clock. Hourglass used in the 18th and 19th centuries. MN Up until the early 11th century, the best known method for measuring small intervals of time was the hourglass. This was used to regulate life aboard the ship and to calculate its speed.

    Title page of the Suma de Geographia. Martín Fernández Enciso. Seville, 1519. MN This work contains the first description of the lands comprising the New World, with particular reference to their coasts. It includes a treatise on navigation and some tables showing solar declinations. Regimiento de navegación. Pedro de Medina. Seville, 1563. MN Volume two of this navigation rulebook gave instructions for measuring the height of the sun with a nautical astrolabe.

    Title page of the Regimiento de navegación. Pedro de Medina. Seville, 1563. MN Rulebooks were a type of treatise on navigation for practical use by pilots. They were written in the form of recommendations and rules, the "Casa de Contratación" being responsible for their custody and diffusion. The Gunter sector. 17th and 18th centuries. MN This compass was used in mathematical calculations for solving navigation problems in the area of flat triangles and spheres.

    Nautical speed-measuring wheel. MN This instrument was used to determine the speed of the vessel. A rope with knots at regular intervals and wound round a wheel was released overboard at the stern of the ship as it moved forward, and the number of knots released over a certain period of time were then counted.


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    Re: Orange blossom going, cinnamon returning

    Ships, galleons, frigates and corvettes
    In those days, shipping vessels were the most complex machines of the time, the galleon being the most oustanding example of available technology.

    Transoceanic voyages meant that traditional vessels had to adapt to ocean-going conditions, and were therefore built to withstand long voyages and heavy storms.
    Tonnage was increased, hulls were reinforced, deck installations were improved and the sails occupied a greater ratio of sail-to-deck space.
    The galleon, which was the product of a complex port system developed by Spain, had a displacement of between 300 and 800 tons and was some 30 metres long.
    New designs were drawn up in the 18th century as different types of ships and frigates were developed and built. With the arrival of the Age of Enlightenment, the warship was a product with a difference, and the technology used was later incorporated into merchant navy vessels. Steam-driven sea-going vessels were not to appear on the scene until the end of the 19th century.
    All manner of merchandise was shipped across the oceans. These were the strategic cargoes related to the profits of the Royal Treasury, which were therefore subject to territorial control: precious metals, arms, books, documents and some scientific instruments. Other shipments comprised a variety of goods according to the supply and demand of the times.
    The nature of cargoes and the control exercised over them was an essential factor, given the relatively small size of the ships. Techniques for loading on board were usually the object of study, in order to ensure the safety of the vessel, and all available space was usually taken advantage of. In the Philippines, the governing authorities assigned "boletas" for the loading of the galleon with "piezas", which were units of cargo. Different types of packaging and containers were used: barrels for fresh water, protective sacking, boxes, rudimentary crates, etc. Ideas and culture, Christian beliefs and doctrine, technology and art and scientific developments in medical and botanical knowledge all crossed from one frontier to another aboard the vessels that sailed the seas.

    Drawing on parchment of a late 17th century vessel. AGI During the greater part of the modern era, there were few differences between ships used for transport and those used as war vessels. In the navy, the ship of the line was to be the star until it was replaced by the steamer.

    Longitudinal section of a ship. Diccionario demostrativo... by the Marquis of La Victoria. Cádiz, 1719-1756. MN The shape and dimensions of the hull determined its cargo capacity and navigation qualities, while the sails provided the driving force, both in terms of speed and manoeuvrability.

    Different types of ships. Diccionario demostrativo... by the Marquis of La Victoria. Cádiz, 1719-1756. MN This shows different models of ships, including those used on the voyages between Spain and America.

    Cross section of a ship and drawing of a dry dock. Album marino, by Cesáreo Fernández Duro. MN From the second half of the 15th century onwards, the increase in capacity requirements of vessels called for new methods for careening ships without having to turn them on their sides, and this gave rise to the development of dry docks and careening docks.

    Capstan and helm wheel. Diccionario demostrativo... by the Marquis of La Victoria. Cádiz, 1719-1756. MN Aboard ship, heavy loads were moved by means of a capstan or vertical-shaft winches which had several times the power of one man. During the modern era, the medieval rudder, which consisted of one or two oars suspended from the sides, was replaced by a single rudder suspended from the stern post, which considerably improved steering operations.

    A frigate being constructed on a slipway. Diccionario demostrativo con la configuración o anatomía de toda la arquitectura naval moderna, by the Marquis of La Victoria. Cádiz, 1719-1756. MN The most characteristic naval facilities used for the construction of ships on dry land comprised the shipyard, inside which was the slipway, upon which construction of the vessel was begun.

    Cargo loaded aboard a vessel. End of the 18th century. MN Merchandise loaded on board for overseas trade was classified in two categories - strategic, which were directly linked to Crown interests, and general, these latter being the object of supply and demand existing in those ports that held a concession for holding markets for exchange of merchandise.

    The frigate "Marcelino Jané". Oil painting by W.H. Yorke. 1875. MMB The frigates started life in the 17th century as warships but were used as merchant navy vessels for transoceanic voyages during the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Supplies taken on for the long transoceanic voyages. Diccionario demostrativo... by the Marquis of La Victoria. Cádiz, 1719-1756. MN In order to avoid the illnesses brought on by poor nutrition during long voyages and which hitherto had claimed so many lives, the 18th century saw the beginnings of an effort to carefully select and preserve all foodstuffs kept in the storehouse of the vessel.

    Clothing and kit of a soldier and a sailor serving aboard the King's vessels. Diccionario demostrativo... by the Marquis of La Victoria. Cádiz, 1719-1756. MN The reforming policies of the Bourbon era took care to implement and systematize, down to the smallest detail, the uniforms and kit used on the voyages undertaken by the Spanish fleet.

    Machines and devices used in the arsenals. Diccionario demostrativo... by the Marquis of La Victoria. Cádiz, 1719-1756. MN During the 18th century, the arsenals were centres of technological innovation in naval construction, and here different machines and other elements were developed; the use of these devices spread to the merchant navy and to a multitude of land-based applications, as is the case of lifting machines and portable fire-fighting equipment.

    Different types of vessels for sailing across the Mediterranean. MN The perfecting of techniques in naval construction meant that the most suitable design could be drawn up for each specific purpose and even take into account the particular types of winds that would be encountered on the different kinds of voyages.

    Implements used in the hold of a ship. Diccionario demostrativo... by the Marquis of La Victoria. Cádiz, 1719-1756. MN From the 17th century onwards, the hold of larger tonnage vessels was divided into several sections and storerooms: anchor chains and mooring ropes, water and wine supply, chests for bullets, food supplies, etc.

    52-cannon frigate built and fitted out in the English style. Diccionario demostrativo... by the Marquis of La Victoria. Cádiz, 1719-1756. MN In the early 18th century, the Spanish fleet was refurbished and this led to the modernizing of ships used on the communications routes between the old world and the new, and ships with greater cargo capacity and fitted out with more powerful artillery were built.

    Instruments and implements used for navigation. Diccionario demostrativo... by the Marquis of La Victoria. Cádiz, 1719-1756. MN The "Casa de Contratación" was of valuable assistance to seamen, as it held in its custody the standards against which the quality of nautical instruments could be checked and, on occasions, even manufactured such instruments.

    Furniture fitted in the cabins of the captain and officers of the vessels. Diccionario demostrativo... by the Marquis de la Victoria. Cádiz, 1719-1756. MN Besides the importance of purely technical aspects, the lengthiness of the voyages suggested the need to take care of the small details that would make life aboard more comfortable.


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    Defending the sea and the land
    The fortifications that were erected by the Spanish Crown in its overseas territories is the largest collection of defence constructions ever to be built by one organizing authority. -- Roberto Segre.

    Faced with the threat of other foreign powers, pirates, privateers and buccaneers, the Spanish Crown decided upon a dual defence system. One of these was mobile and comprised "the Fleet": this provided dynamic defence, with fixed periods of vigilance and a single patrol circuit. The other was fixed and comprised static defence by means of fortification of the principle ports, which in turn became fortified cities.
    Besides fortifications, these ports had a series of characteristics in common: the bays which protected them, the hydraulic engineering which was developed within them, and the existence of specific support infrastructure such as shipyards and warehouses.
    Renaissance techniques and designs were assimilated by the engineers working under the Spanish Crown, adapting these to each individual case. Fortifications were brought in line with the requirements of each different region, and practical experience took precedence over any theoretical approach. The number, dimensions and extension of the fortifications built in the New World eventually created a type of defence known as the Spanish buttressed fortification.
    112-cannon Spanish vessel. 18th century. MN During the reign of Philip V, the ungainly rounded shape of the galleons of the previous century began to be replaced by other, more streamlined vessels. Plan of a galleon prepared for combat. 17th century. MN From the 16th century onwards, the American run galleons were organized into two fleets which set sail in May and in September, one bound for New Spain and the other for Terra Firma. This was the defense response in the face of the continual threats to Spanish overseas trading operations.

    Veracruz (Mexico), with the castle of San Juan de Ulua. 1763. AGI The principal port on the coasts of New Spain was Veracruz, an enclave for the arrival and departure of the Indies run galleons. The city was situated in a strategic place opposite the small island of Ulua where the castle of San Juan was built.

    Puerto Rico and its environs. 1783. SHM San Juan de Puerto Rico was built on a tiny island situated at the entrance to a large bay. At the end of the 18th century the harbour mouth was defended by the renowned Castillo del Morro.

    Santo Domingo in 1778. Antonio Alvarez Barba. MN This first American founding had a short-lived success, although experiments with the urban planning and defence system were carried out and these were later applied to all other cities founded on that continent.

    Habana in 1746, according to the plan drawn up by Antonio de Arredondo. SGE Founded in 1515 and sited on a protected bay, it soon became a place where the New Spain and Terra Firma fleets gathered. From the times of Philip II and as a result of attacks by pirates, it underwent fortification works and in the 18th century was one of the most protected ports in the whole of America.

    Aerial view of Veracruz (Mexico). C. Castro and Francisco Garc’a. 19th century. BN Veracruz was founded in 1519 by Hernán Cortés, on the Gulf of Mexico, in accordance with an urban layout model based on a grid system of streets and blocks which radiated from a central "plaza".

    Cartagena de Indias (Colombia). AGI Founded in 1533 at the foot of a large bay and on the site of an ancient native village, it soon became one of the most important places in America by virtue of its large protected bay and its excellent communication routes to the interior.

    Panama in 1673. AGI The Spaniards established a system that was both a nexus and a barrier in the area of the isthmus when they built and fortified the cities of Portobelo and Panama. The expeditions to Peru and the rest of America sailed from this latter city.

    Montevideo in 1783. MN Founded in later times, 1726, only at the end of the Viceroyalty, Montevideo played an important role associated with the defence of Spanish territory, which at that time was threatened by the growing power of Brazil.

    Cartagena de Indias (Colombia), with its fortifications. 1594. AGI Because of the instability of the soil upon which it was built and because of the dreadful climatic conditions, defence of this city during the modern era was punctuated by repeated failure. During the 18th century, fortification works were unexpectedly boosted and turned Cartagena into an impregnable city.


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    The "Virreinato" of New Spain
    The Spanish Crown organized a set of institutions for the administration and government of its territories in the New World.

    The "virreinatos" of New Spain and Peru headed the organization of territories in the New World that were under the control of the Spanish Crown up until the 18th century, when the "virreinatos" of New Granada and Río de la Plata were created.
    The "virreinatos" were divided into regional demarcations known as governments. Each government was responsible for a territory with a specific number of towns or villages which were grouped together and controlled by magistracies.
    From the point of view of administration of justice, the territory was divided into "audiencias" and, in accordance with military bureacracy, into captaincies, which were located in the principal regional governments. The Philippine "Audiencia" and Government came under the control of the "virreinato" of New Spain.
    Right from the start, cities were the nerve centres of all divisions of the administration, and the headquarters of all civil, ecclesiastical and military bodies were located there.
    Each city was governed and administered by an institution imported directly from Spain: the town council, known as the "cabildo". A flow of ideas, people and merchandise began to be exchanged between the territories of the "virreinato" of New Spain and the Philippine Islands, and over the centuries this created a permanent nexus between Asia and America.

    Plan of the city of Mexico, divided into districts. 1782. Manuel Villavicencio. AGI. During the 18th century, demarcations between neighbourhoods were determined for purely administrative purposes. The physical division made between one neighbourhood and another was generally performed on the basis of "districts".

    "Plaza de Armas" in Mexico, with the Cathedral in the background. C. Castro. 19th century. BN. If the "cuadrícula" or grid system was the formal way in which the Hispano-American city was structured, then the "plaza mayor", "plaza de armas" or "plaza", is the element that arranges and orders each and every urban settlement.

    The city of Mexico in the mid-18th century. AGI. During the 18th century, the Bourbon spirit of ordering all things attempted to give many areas of the capital a more dignified air, with particular reference to its main "plaza"

    Aerial view of the city of Mexico. C. Castro. 19th century. BN. In the 19th century several programmes for making cities more beautiful were initiated. Streets were widened, new "plazas" were opened and the old ones were turned into gardens, changing their appearance. In general terms, cities turned away from the old Spanish colonial structure and incorporated new European trends.

    Pintura del gobernador, alcaldes y regidores. Códice de Osuna. 1565. BN. Mexico, capital of the viceroyalty of New Spain, was built upon the ruins of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, after it was destroyed by the troops of Hernán Cortés.

    The Caribbean, in the World Islands Map. Alonso de Santa Cruz. 16th century. BN. The viceroyalty of New Spain, created in 1535, included under one generic title a whole range of different, vast territories, ranging from the kingdom of Guatemala to the rich mining regions of the north, which were organized around one hub: the city of Mexico. It also included practically the whole of the Caribbean area.


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    The "Cuadrícula"
    In the New World, Spain carried out one of the greatest town-planning ventures of all times, and all projects were based on a common model: the "cuadrícula", or grid pattern.

    The Spaniards considered the city to be an essential element in the organization of its territories in America and the Philippines. The first cities, where the embryo of a new order of town planning already existed, were built in the Caribbean area and were then developed in Central America.
    This method of creating cities became consolidated, in accordance with a certain planning model, as from the founding of Lima in 1535, and under the influence of the Spaniards it spread rapidly over the rest of the American continent, eventually reaching the Philippines.
    The "cuadrícula", which consisted of a system of streets and blocks that were laid out with regular precision, was developed through a varied typology, and was usually structured in a hierarchical fashion with the "main plaza" as its focal point, since this symbolized the city centre.
    The efficiency afforded by the "cuadrícula" method in the utilization of space was so significant that this model of town planning was applied in a standard way in all places and at different periods in time. It was used from California to Chile and from Cuba to the Philippines, from the early decades of the 16th century up until the 19th century. The "cuadrícula" was adopted as the standard form for creating cities, and was characteristic of all town planning projects that were carried out in the New World.

    City of Caracas (Venezuela) with its neighbourhoods marked out. Joseph Carlos de AgŸero. 1775. AGI The initial layout was performed in a territory defined by three small rivers of unequal size, and Caracas began to grow as a succession of equal and equally separated elements were added in all directions.

    Drawing of Lima or the City of the Kings, around 1750. BN Lima, the capital of the Peruvian viceroyalty, was initially set out in a rectangular form in which the "plaza" was displaced to the nearby Rimac river. This urban layout was consolidated in the 18th century after the construction of the city walls.

    Drawing of Santa Fe de Bogotá (Colombia). Domingo Esquiaqui. 1791. SGE The growth of the old city of Santa Fe was limited by the presence of the San Francisco and San Agustín rivers. It was not until the 18th century that city growth moved beyond these natural barriers and spread in a northern and southern direction with a grid-system layout

    Drawing of the new city of Guatemala de la Asunción. Marcos Ibáñez. 1778. AGI Throughout its history, the city of Guatemala was sited in different places. The third settlement, which was carried out at the orders of Charles III in 1775, maintained the design involving a central "plaza" and radiating street blocks within a basic orthoganal layout.

    The city of Quito (Ecuador). Dionisio Alcedo Herrera. 1734. AGI The city of Quito was established on relatively rugged terrain. Over time, the early, regular layout of its nucleus became more irregular as it had to take account of the orographical features of the area.

    La Plata, also known as Charcas, and today Sucre (Bolivia), in 1779. Yldifonzo Luján. AGI The city of La Plata was never confined behind walls and its streets were only contained by their natural geographical surroundings. Its early structure was maintained throughout the whole of the colonial period.

    Buenos Aires (Argentina) towards 1760. SHM From the 16th century onwards, the city of Buenos Aires grew at a slow pace. After the La Plata viceroyalty was established in 1776 and this city became the capital, a great many more urban planning works were undertaken.

    San Juan de la Frontera (Argentina), in 1562. Thomas Suárez. AGI The plan for the founding of San Juan de la Frontera was drawn up when the "cuadrícula" was still firmly entrenched, and this is an outstanding example of the model established for cities in Latin America.

    Drawing showing the spacial distribution of towns founded in America by the Spaniards. Drawn up on the basis of information provided by Catalina Romero Romero (Artigas, Pina, Patón)
    • Red: Towns founded between 1492-1521
    • Blue: Towns founded between 1521-1573
    • Light blue: Towns founded between 1573-1750
    • Orange: Towns founded between 1750-1810
    • Cross: Missions
    • White: Other urban settlements founded by the Spaniards which are of no known date

    The expansion spreading from Asunción, as reflected in the "Urbanismo español en America" exhibition, 1976. ICI. (Artigas, Pina, Patón) The expansion spreading from Quito, as reflected in the "Urbanismo español en America" exhibition, 1976. ICI. (Artigas, Pina, Patón)

    The expansion spreading from Mexico, as reflected in the "Urbanismo español en America" exhibition, 1976. ICI. (Artigas, Pina, Patón) The expansion spreading from Panama, as reflected in the "Urbanismo español en America" exhibition, 1976. ICI. (Artigas, Pina, Patón)

    The development and expansion of colonizing activity as it spread out from the founding settlement in Las Antillas, as reflected in the "Urbanismo español en America" exhibition, 1976. ICI. (Artigas, Pina, Patón) The development and expansion of colonizing activity as it spread out from the founding settlement in Santo Domingo, as reflected in the "Urbanismo español en America" exhibition, 1976. ICI. (Artigas, Pina, Patón)


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    The Pacific route to the Orient
    Transoceanic voyages set off from the eastern coasts of New Spain in an effort to find a new route leading to Asia, as there was a race with the Portuguese to be the first to arrive there. This is the second leg of the journey: the sea once more.

    It was Christopher Columbus' dream to find the spice lands, and this was the underlying reason why one voyage after another across the Pacific Ocean was undertaken during the 16th century.
    One of the most emblematic voyages of discovery was that of Magellan, who discovered the Philippines; Elcano followed the route that had been established and was the first Spaniard to sail around the world. These early explorers spurred others on to undertake the voyages of exploration that were to occur over that century.
    In 1525, García de Loaísa followed the Magellan route under orders of the Emperor, whose goal was to reach the Molucca Islands.
    In 1527, Alvaro de Saavedra set out with the firm intention of discovering other spice-producing islands and lands, and in 1542, Villalobos set out from the port of Navidad to ensure that control of those Pacific islands remained in the hands of Spaniards.
    In 1564, Legazpi set out on a voyage whose mission was to colonize the Philippines and to discover a return route that would connect both continents. The many tons of spices that crossed the oceans were to change for ever the way in which European markets functioned.
    In 1565, Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the return trip from the East, which was a new route that passed northwards, thereby avoiding the much-feared and treacherous trade winds. This discovery was to allow communications to exist on a regular basis between the Philippines and New Spain.
    In the "virreinato" a long overland trail known as the "Camino de los Virreyes" or Route of the Viceroys, connected the Atlantic city of Veracruz with the capital, and the capital was connected with the port of Acapulco on the Pacific coast by means of the "Camino de Asia" or Asia Route.

    The bay and city of Acapulco (Mexico). Nicolás Cardona. 1632. BN In 1851, Acapulco was authorized to carry out trading activities with the Orient and became a place of privilege in the links established with the Asiatic archipelago. It was to maintain this role during the lifetime of the Viceroyalty.

    Ferdinand Magellan (ca. 1480-1521). MN Magellan, a Portuguese navigator serving the Spanish Crown, discovered the Philippine archipelago during his search for the spice route which, of necessity, had to avoid any contact with the Portuguese possessions.

    Sketch of the royal route between Veracruz and Mexico, starting from the village of Perote. Diario particular del camino que sigue un virrey de México desde su llegada a Veracruz hasta su entrada pública en la capital, by Diego García de Panes. 18th century. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Oviedo. Colonizers, friars and traders travelled the "Camino de los Virreyes" which linked Veracruz with the capital of New Spain.

    The royal route between Veracruz and Mexico, starting from the country inn of Butrón. Batista Antonelli. 1590. AGI All travellers and merchandise landing in Veracruz and bound for the Philippines had to undertake a long overland journey before boarding the Acapulco Galleon.

    Geographical drawing of the kingdom of New Spain, with its land routes as they were at the end of the Viceroyalty. Gonzalo López de Haro. 1810. MN An interoceanic route linked Veracruz with Mexico; then, after following a descending route it reached the city of Acapulco on the Pacific coast.

    Project for a castle to defend Acapulco (Mexico). 1776. SHM Works undertaken to fortify the city were intensified from the 18th century onwards, although difficulties were encountered in the transportation of materials and labour in this respect.

    Ground plan of the project for a castle to defend Acapulco (Mexico). 1776. SHM The military engineers took as long to find a technical solution for crossing the Mezcala river as they did to design the castle itself.

    Sketch of Acapulco and its outskirts. Fernando de Pozo. 1820. SHM From the second half of the 18th century onwards, improved cartography of Acapulco Bay became available; before this it was practically impossible to draw up plans for adequate defences of this port.

    The port of Acapulco and the royal fortress of San Diego. 1730. AGI The port of Acapulco became increasingly important as from 1565, when Andrés de Urdaneta, an Augustinian friar, discovered the route for the return voyage from the Philippines.

    The city of Acapulco with its castle. 1742. AGI The arrival of the Galleon at the port of Acapulco was a very important event: it meant the opening of the market-place and transformed the usually quiet town into a city full of hustle and bustle.

    The first routes of the Pacific Ocean according to Morales Padrón

    Map of communications between America and the Philippines. 1784. AGI This shows the navigation route followed from Panama to the Philippine archipelago and the one used for the return voyage; it reflects the most up-dated observations and ocean routes established at the end of the 18th century.

    Maritime power and colonization, the Indies run and the Philippines run.

    The Oceanic route. Currents and winds.


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    The Philippines, an Asiatic archipelago
    A country set in the heart of Asia, the Philippines formed part of the territories known in the West as the East Indies.

    The Philippines, situated in the tropics and surrounded by the Pacific Ocean and the South China and Celebes Seas, comprises over seven thousand islands. The Philippines has suffered the devastating effects of earth tremors and earthquakes throughout the whole of its history: there are over fifty volcanoes on its territory. The Philippines, a melting pot of nations and different influences, has been the meeting point of numerous migrations. The Philippines started being colonized by foreign traders from the 10th century onwards: Moslems settled in the southern regions and the Chinese settled in Luzon. The Philippines, an area of low population density whose peoples practiced itinerant agriculture, was a country without cities; its urban development coincides with the arrival of Western culture in the 16th century. The Philippines began to widen its trading horizons after the arrival of the Spaniards, not only with countries in its immediate environs, but with many other far-off countries, by means of an extensive trading network that united all continents. The Philippines remained under the Spanish Crown until 1898, while many of its neighbour territories fell successively under the influence of different European powers: Portugal, France, Holland, Great Britain,...

    Model of a Philippine-built ship whose construction reflects western influences, and which was used for foreign trading. MN During the 19th century, indigenous trading continued along much the same lines as it had done from the 16th century. Beyond the immediate area of the archipelago, the greater part of trading operations were carried out with Borneo, China and Japan.

    Model of a Philippine-built ship used for trading around the archipelago. MN Before the Spaniards arrived, the Philippines had a trading life of their own, and this was based on a system of bartering. The natives traditionally used the canals and river creeks to communicate with one another within a given area.

    The island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Nicolás Norton Nicols. 1757. AGI At no time did the Spaniards ever gain complete control over the Philippine archipelago. When they reached Mindanao, they met with fierce resistance from its Moslem inhabitants.

    General map of the Philippines. Pedro Murillo Velarde. SGE Trading activity involving oriental products between the Philippine colony and the mother country was organized around the Acapulco Galleon, which connected those islands with New Spain.

    A Philippine Indian. Album fotográfico... End of the 19th century. BN The Philippine natives were a mixture of several races as a result of the succesive migration of peoples from the surrounding countries. The Japanese from the north, the Indonesians and Papuans from the south, Melanesians and Polynesians from the east and Chinese and Hindus from the west.

    A mestizo Spanish woman. Album fotográfico de vistas y tipos de Filipinas. End of the 19th century. BN There were several types of Filipino mestizos: the Spanish mestizos who were the product of the union of Spaniards and Indians, and the sangley mestizos, who were the result of union between the Chinese and the Indians.

    Spanish mestizo family. Album fotográfico... End of the 19th century. BN The population of the Philippines is extremely heterogeneous, and is the fruit of miscegenation with Europeans, Chinese and natives.

    General map of the Philippine archipelago. 1865. AHN Spanish Manila maintained permanent trading contacts with China, Siam, the Malayan kingdoms and Japan. The Chinese traders brought silk, ready-prepared nails, iron sheeting, saltpetre, gunpowder, porcelain and silverware from Canton to this port.

    General map of the China Sea showing part of the Philippine coasts and part of the islands of Indonesia. 1787. AGI From the 11th century onwards, the Chinese began to establish themselves over the whole of the Indonesian archipelago, besides founding trading settlements in the Moluccas and in the Philippines. When Europeans invaded the Orient these enclaves acquired a fresh significance.

    General map of the Philippines, Indonesia and Insulindia. SGE Although the surrounding territories were successively occupied by other colonial powers, the Philippines remained firmly linked with Spanish America, and took no part in the trading rivalry occurring among these other powers.

    Laguna and the Taal volcano, on the island of Luzon to the south of Manila. Circa 1860. SGE Volcanic activity was a determining factor in the orography of the archipelago. There are few islands that do not show any sign of this phenomenon which caused frequent earth tremors.

    The Cagayan river in the north of the island of Luzon, in the Philippines. Juan Luis de Acosta. Circa 1720. AGI The valley of the Cagayan River, the largest and longest river of all those on the archipelago, was the great tobacco-growing region on Luzon.

    The island of Mindanao with its fortresses and the territory occupied by the Jesuits and discalced cloistered Recoletos monastic order. 1683. AGI The Spanish presence on the island was limited to the building of a few fortresses such as those of Zamboanga and Iligan, and the founding of religous missions.


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    A "well ordered" city emerges
    Manila forms part of a process of urban development that also takes in the whole of Spanish America and conforms to a single model of city.

    Maynila, under the rule of Soliman, a Moslem and ally of the royal families of Sulu and Brunei, controlled trading activities between the Chinese and Malayans and the inhabitants of the interior. On 24 June 1571 Miguel López de Legazpi, hispanicizing his former name, founds the city of Manila on the left bank of the Pasig River on the edge of the bay, establishes a municipal Council and declares it the capital of the new territories under the Spanish Crown. The birth of Manila is accompanied by new activities that give rise to the appearance of urban life, hitherto unknown in the Philippines. Manila, like many others in Spanish America, is a port city, and will play a vital role as the point of exchange for merchandise traded between the Western world and the Orient. The fortress of Nuestra Señora de Guía stood guard over the city. By the end of the 16th century the city was surrounded by a first walled defence which backed onto the river and the edge of the bay, with the Santiago Fort at its top end. Chinese trading merchants and craftsmen, known as sangleyes settle in Manila on the other side of the river and are the protagonists par excellence of life in the new city; a bridge connects them with the walled city.

    The city of Manila. Oil painting on the inside of a wooden chest, circa 1640-50. Museo de Arte Jose Luis Bello, Puebla. Mexico. After the 1645 earthquake Manila was reconstructed. By the end of the 17th century, Intramuros had some six hundred houses that were protected by its stone walls.

    Coat of arms of the city of Manila, capital of the Philippines, adopted on 30th may 1596. BN
    The city of Manila. AGI Manila was undoubtedly the centre of the port life of the Philippines, and shared this task with the naval arsenal of Cavite; they were, in a sense, complementary cities.

    The Castle of Santiago in the city of Manila. Juan de Ciscara. 1714. AGI The Santiago fortress was built between 1596 and 1602 on the land promontory between the sea and the Pasig River, and was the most important fortification built in Manila. The walls encircling the city started at this point.
    Ceremonies and traditional dance dress of the country in 1776. AGI

    Manila Bay. Rafael Cerero. 1888. SGE Corregidor Island divides the entrance to the bay into two channels: one is the "Boca Chica", which separates the island from Punta Lasirí, and the other is "Boca Grande", which separates Pulo Caballo and Punta Restringa. Twenty-five miles ahead of them is the city of Manila.

    Ground plan of a fortress in Manila. AGI Luzon was the best defended island. From its beginnings, Manila attempted to fortify itself as it was a strategically important point on the route linking China with Cádiz.

    View of the bay and the city of Manila. Engraving made by Francisco Javier de Herrera. 1818. SHM The beautiful bay of Manila with its limpid waters was admired by all travellers and seamen putting into port on the coasts of the island of Luzon. It was used as an anchorage by the ships arriving from the principal trading centres of Asia and America.

    View of the city of Manila from Bagumbayan. Engraving made by Esteve. 1818. SHM In 1581, ten years after its founding, Manila received the title of "Insigne" (noble) and "Leal" (loyal), and became an episcopal seat under the control of Mexico after the proclamation of a papal bull.

    The Pasig River in the city of Manila. Fernando Brambila. Collection of drawings and engravings made on the Malaspina Expedition. 1789-1794. MN The city of Manila was founded near to the mouth of the great Pasig River, which was navigable as far as its source at the Laguna de Bay. Up until the 19th century, only one stone-built bridge connected the fortified precinct with the districts on the opposite bank.


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    Manila "Intramuros"

    The walls of Manila determined its growth, marking a dividing line between the outside and the interior. This interior is known as Intramuros.

    The relative importance given by the authorities to Intramuros, in relation to the rest of the city, was influential in the history of the formation and the development of Manila. Although the perimeter of Intramuros was irregular, that did not prevent the organization of the city from being in agreement with the model used by the Spaniards in the New World: parallel and perpendicular straight streets that are crossed to form a gridiron. The resulting square or rectangular blocks; are divided as well, first in four lots, soon in more, always with fronts to the streets; the houses constructed in line with the street. The cathedral occupies a prominent place in the central plaza; the City Hall is also constructed in the plaza.
    Fires and earthquakes level the city. Intramuros, and all Manila, rises time and time again on its ruins. Its primitive layout remains. The wall limits the interior population, that never gets to be very dense : in the middle of the 17th century it contained something more than two thousand inhabitants. In second half of the 18th century, the increasing growth of the suburbs suspends the population of Intramuros. Manila becomes much more that Intramuros.
    St. Francis' Square in Manila. Fernando Brambila. Collection of drawings and engravings of the Malaspina Expedition. 1789-1794. MN With their arrival to Manila in 1577, the Franciscans began with construction of wood and cane churches that succumbed to natural catastrophes. In 1739 they constructed a stone church that was financed by the public charity and became one of richest in Intramuros.

    Plan of the City of Manila. Antonio Giménez. Signed by governing general military Jaudenes. 1898. SGE At the end of 19th century the urban structure of Manila was completed. The original defensive configuration stayed invariable during the Spanish time, and it is conserved at the present time.

    Manila Intramuros. Antonio Giménez. 1851. SHM When becoming independent of Mexico, the Philippines happens to depend directly on the metropolis. From her the overseas ministry begins to undertake a series of infrastructure works that make of Manila a modern city, "most European" of Asia.

    The city in 1783. AGI The history of Manila was plagued by earthquakes, fires and natural accidents of diverse nature, that forced successive reconstructions and served their constructors to carry out a better material preparation.

    Manila Intramuros. 1839. L.A. García. SHM During the 19th century to crystallize in Manila a peculiar and polished domestic architecture fruit of the mestization of colonial types that are adapted to the local conditions and to the appearance of a bourgeoisie that is developed at a time of freedom of commerce and greater facility in the communications.

    Plan of the fortified enclosure of Manila. Tomás Sanz. 1785. AGI The natural conditions facilitated the fortification of the urban enclosure, that by the side of the river counted on a natural pit and by the other it only could be attacked by sea. The only soft spot was the inner part, where the natural defense was the marshy character it of the land.

    Plan of the city of Manila 1762. AGI In 1762 the city of Manila was surrounded by the English and the 5 of October it surrendered after a siege. This occupation lasted until the 31 of May of 1763, after the treaty of peace signed in Paris the 10 of February of that same year.

    City of Manila. Tomás Sanz. 1784. SHM The plan of the city of simple grid was not difficult to him to make the own soldiers who although did not understand of city-planning technique, this form facilitated the division and the distribution to them in lots.

    Intramuros of Manila, with the location of the most excellent buildings. Carlos Kings. 1895. SHM In the interior of the fortified enclosure, the layout of the streets followed the usual model of the checkerboard, in lines that extended from the central plaza, where were the main buildings of the Spanish dominion.

    The city and its suburbs. 18th Century. SHM In 17th century begins a process of growth and expansion of the towns near Manila, that consolidates in the two following centuries until being turned districts of the capital.

    Plan of Manila where the religious buildings are specified. 19th Century SHM the religious factor was not the only influence of the colonization, but one of the determinants of the urban layout, as it demonstrates the abundance of churches, convents and schools in the interior of the walled enclosure.

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    Defence and fortification
    The Philippines were considered to be a key part of the defence system of the Spanish Crown in the New World. The fortified city of the Philippines was Manila.

    Manila soon became a fortified city. It was fortified in accordance with the principles of the bastion system: straight stretches of wall - the curtain walls -, against which polygonal precincts protruded - the bastions.
    The fortified system comprises several parts: the fronts facing the sea and the river, which were less elaborate and complex; and the three-sided land front with its corresponding bastions. The Santiago Castle was built at the sharpest angle, between the river and the bay, and this functioned as a citadel.
    In the 18th century, the governor Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas gave great momentum to the fortification of Manila, his achievement being to surround the city with stone. From the 18th century onwards, the military engineers began to replace the governors in the construction of fortifications. In 1763, the English take the city of Manila.
    Fresh projects are drawn up from then onwards: Juan Martín Cermeño, Feliciano Márquez, Dionisio O'Kelly and Tomás Sanz, are the engineers directing the works; although from the mid-18th century onwards the fortifications of Manila scarcely underwent any change at all.
    In 1939, the Manila Intramuros precinct, one of the most important in the fortification system carried through by the Spaniards in the New World, remained intact.

    Plan and sectional view of the San Pedro redoubt. Tomás Sanz. 1781. AGI This was sited facing the sea, to the south of Intramuros. Its ground plan was square and it was constructed on the outer side of the city wall but access to the interior was provided by a narrow passageway.

    Plan of the ravelin sited on the Bagumbayan front. Dionisio Kelly. 1772. AGI This was an external construction covering and defending the curtain wall of a fort. This ravelin was built on the curtain wall of the Bagumbayan front in order to defend the "Puerta Real". puerta Real.

    Plan, sectional views and front views of the new bastion and part of the Santo Domingo curtain wall. 1838. SHM This large bastion was constructed on the river front close to the Santo Domingo church and monastery.

    Plan of the San Diego bastion and foundry. 19th century. SHM This fortification had a pentagonal shape: it protruded where two curtain walls met, two of its sides forming a sharp angle; it had two flanks joining it to the city wall, and one ogee as a point of entry. It was constructed on the site of the fort of Nuestra Señora de Guía.

    Fortification of the city of Manila. Tomás Sanz. 1779. AGI The wall surrounding the Manila Intramuros precinct had four fronts: one facing the river, one facing the sea, and two land fronts, one of which was called Bagumbayan.

    Plans, section view and front view of the house of the castellano at the Royal Fortress of Santiago. SHM The castellano was the governor of a castle.

    Repair works undertaken on the house of the governor of the Fortress of Santiago. Manuel Wals. 1890. SHM Within the fort, Manrique de Lara ordered the construction of a semicircular platform called San José, which was situated in front of the Santa Bárbara bastion.

    Plan of the Santiago castle or fortress. Dionisio Kelly. 1771. AGI Construction work was commenced in 1591 and was completed in 1634. This was the work of Leonardo Iturrino, and was the second most important fortress to be built of stone in Manila, the Nuestra Señora de Guía fortress being the first of these.

    Plan of the Royal Fortress of Santiago, in the year 1824. SHM This was separated from the main "plaza" by a fosse flanked by two bastions: the San Miguel bastion, formerly known as San Gregorio, and the San Francisco bastion, formerly known as San Juan Crisostomo.

    Plan of the city of Manila and the San Lázaro archipelago, with a new fortification project. Miguel Antonio Gómez. 19th century. AGI The most significant fortification projects undertaken for Manila were carried out during the 18th century, while the 19th century witnessed no works of any importance.

    Plan, sectional view and elevation of the gate and archway of Santa Lucía. Tomás Sanz. 1781. AGI The Santa Lucía gate was one of the most important of those which gave access through the Manila city wall. It faced southwards towards the sea, and opened onto the María Cristina explanade.

    Plan, sectional views and elevation of the "Puerta Nueva" which was constructed at the mid-point of the Bagumbayan curtain wall front. Tomás Sanz. 1781. SHM This gate was transferred in the 18th century to the centre of the curtain wall on the Bagumbayan front while still preserving its name.

    Plan, sectional views and elevation of the Postern. Tomás Sanz. 1783. SHM The Postern gate in the city wall faced south on the seaboard curtain wall. In the 18th century, and as a result of the creation in Spain of the Corps of military engineers, new techniques were used to build the fortifications of Manila.


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    Beyond the walls
    Manila begins to grow as a result of trading activities, with an ever-increasing lack of proportion between Intramuros and the villages growing up beyond the walls.

    At first, Intramuros was mainly inhabited by the Spaniards, who were known as castilas, while outside the walls other neighbourhoods were established, these being inhabited principally by the natives and other non-Europeans, particularly the Chinese, known as sangleyes, whose trading enclave was the Parian, which was on the same side of the river as Intramuros.
    The Parian district eventually disappeared at the end of the 18th century. A new construction, the "Alcaicería" of San Fernando, was then built on the other side of the river, also devoted to trading activities.
    During that period, on the left bank of the Pasig River and to the north of Intramuros, small urban settlements started to develop; these were grouped within the peninsulas formed by the river creeks: Tondo, Binondo, Santa Cruz, Quiapo, San Sebastián and San Miguel. The villages of La Ermita and Malate were established to the south, on the seaboard.
    Between both these sectors and a little further out, a second ring of villages was established, these were: Sampaloc, San Juan del Monte, Santa Ana, San Fernando de Dilao or Paco and San Pedro Macati. All these small villages, which became districts of Manila in the 19th century, had a building around which they were organized: the parish church, which was practically the only outstanding element beyond the walls up until the 19th century. In addition, and until the 19th century, there was only one bridge connecting the banks of the Pasig River.

    Manila and its outskirts in 1802. Bernardo de Larse. SGE During the 19th century, the Intramuros precinct became a small nucleus set in the middle of the extensive growth of its outskirts, which spread over several square kilometres, and this was the beginning of the extraordinary surface development of Manila.

    The city of Manila, its contours and its outskirts. Feliciano Márquez. 1767. SHM The most emblematic buildings constructed from stone on the right bank of the river were the barracks of the Luzon Hussars, the public treasury administration building, the tobacco treasury building, several barracks, and the "Alcaicería", which later became the "Aduana" building.

    "Calle de la Escolta" on the banks of the Pasig River. La Ilustración Española y Americana. 1872. BN Generally speaking, streets were dirt roads. Some were cobbled, but in the rainy season they were difficult to pass along .

    View of "calle del Rosario". B. Girardier. End of the 19th century. BN The façade of the upper storey of the houses is made of wood, with overhanging balconies closed off with sliding panels whose panes were made from flat, translucent shell -"capiz"-; this material flooded the interior with a warm and welcoming light.

    "Calle de la Escolta" as seen from San Gabriel. La Ilustración Española y Americana. 1872. BN The "calle de la Escolta" is in the densely populated trading district of Binondo, and was comparable in those-day terms with the "Ramblas" district of Barcelona.

    Plan of Manila. Relaci—n de las Islas Filipinas by Fernando Valdés Tamán. 1739. Biblioteca del Palacio Real The least fortified part of the wall was the stretch starting at the San Gabriel bastion, situated at the angle formed by the land front with the river, since it was thought that the river itself provided sufficient defence.

    Manila and its surrounding area. 1720. AGS A covered roadway was made along the edge of the fosse; this had sufficient height to protect the city wall. The configuration of the "plaza" and the bastions was preserved, and the San Gabriel bastion was made larger to accommodate more cannons.

    The village of Tondo after the 1843 fire. Tomás Cortés. 1843. SHM During the 19th century, most of the constructions in the district of Tondo were still made of cane and nipa palm. It had a spacious market square with a church, and in the final years of the century it had a tramway linking it with Binondo.

    Plan of the village of San Fernando de Dilao. Ceferino Zapanta. 1814. AGI Known at that time as Paco, this was one of the first districts of Manila, where practically all the houses were constructed from cane and nipa palm. This is where the general cemetery for Catholics, with its curious circular shape, was sited.

    Plan of the village of Quiapo and its area of jurisdiction. Francisco Javier Estorgo Gallegos. 1816. AGI The architecture of the buildings here was based on masonry and wood, with galvanized iron roofing. The streets in this district were spacious and housed the wealthy citizens of Manila. The Quinta market was sited here, as was the suspension bridge.

    The Binondo district in Manila. Juan de Ocampo. 1834. SHM This was the leading trading district in the capital, and its urban features were characterized by very important buildings. It was here that the tobacco warehouses and factories, the treasury administration buildings and several banks were sited.


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    The "Gran Manila"
    The forming of the "Gran Manila" is illustrative of the classical Spanish tendency to adapt to its environs, the people and the surrounding culture. Intramuros opened up its doors and blended with the people living around it.

    At the end of the 18th century, the concept of city-citadel began to be abandoned in favour of a re-assessment of the exterior space beyond Intramuros. Towards 1814, the population of Intramuros was over 8,000 people, while the population in the outlying areas was over 50,000. In 1840, the right bank areas of the Pasig had become densely-populated neighbourhoods.
    The defence plans drawn up for Intramuros aimed at demolishing the outlying areas in order to create a clear area: the 50-yard line. Dilao, San Antón and San Miguel are transferred, La Ermita remains where it is, and the disappearance of Binondo was envisaged.
    In 1863 the great city emerges in contrast to the ultraconservative, traditional concept of Intramuros, as a result of the work undertaken by the Topographical Committee and its General Plan for Manila.
    A Royal Decree finally establishes the right to build and make the outlying areas more attractive and extensive. The demolition process is halted. However, the relative success of the defence plan meant that a large green area was established around the city walls.
    The Magistracy and province of Manila are created, comprising 29 villages under one sole jurisdiction, and this formed the Great Manila, the predecessor of what was later known as the "Metro Manila Comission".
    The exclusive, enclosed precinct of Intramuros gave way to the wide, open spaces surrounding it, which had a heterogeneous population. Mestizo architecture of stone and wood started springing up and its use spread to urban services.
    The 19th century was one of good fortune, described in Europe as the century of progress, of steam and of good taste, and had a perceptible and resounding echo in the Philippines. Luis Merino

    Manila and its districts. 1884. SHM By the end of the 19th century, most of the Manila districts had become consolidated, and many of them had acquired a personality of their own.

    Plan of Manila included in the Manila - Tarlac itinerary. Juan Álvarez and Emilio Godínez. 19th century. SGE The abstract chessboard model adapted to difficult site conditions and followed the urban planning model adopted for Hispanic colonization.

    Manila: its suburbs. 19th century. SHM In this 19th century plan, we can see just how much the city and its districts have grown. In the same area and during the 16th century, there were only two small towns: Manila, on the left bank of the Pasig River, and Tondo on the right bank.

    The city of Manila and the villages beyond the walls in 1842. Antonio de la Yglesia. SHM The principal districts of Manila were Binondo, Tondo, Santa Cruz with the Bilibit prison, San Miguel on the banks of the Pasig, Quiapo and Sampaloc with their houses of cane and nipa palm.

    Manila and its outlying villages. Mariano de Goicoechea. 1831. SHM The growth of the city beyond its walls was due on the one hand to a natural urban and demographic expansion, and on the other hand to the presence of the old rural churches around which new inhabitants were settled down.

    The "Gran Manila".

    Sketch of Manila and its suburbs. Emilio Godínez and Juan Álvarez Arenas. 19th century. SGE The systematization of this urban planning model was set down on paper in the Ordenanzas Generales de Descubrimiento y Nueva Población promulgated by Philip II, known also as the Indies Acts.

    Project for a public prison. Emilio Díaz and Armando López Ezquerra. 1857. SHM

    The Manila cemetery, located in the village of Paco. Ildefonso Aragón. 1823. AGI The Paco cemetery was built by the Town Council after the 1820 epidemic. This oval-shaped chapel topped with a dome was the burial place for captains general and prelates.

    A triple-branched street lamp made by Lacarrière. 19th century. AHN José Echeverría, the engineer posted in Europe, was commissioned to supply the street lamps for illuminating the "Puente de España" over the Pasig River.

    Project for the monument commemorating Magellan. Mid-19th century. AHN The monument commemorating Magellan was ordered to be built in 1848 by the governor, Clavería, at the top of the steps on the landing stage for passengers opposite the new Isabel II gate, which connected Intramuros with the esplanade and the "Puente de España".

    Access to the Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses in Manila. BN In the early 19th century, when trading and city prosperity were at their height, a new mestizo stratum of society emerged, and this was to fight for its rights.

    Magallanes Avenue. SHM This popular avenue in Manila was the principal venue for society in the second half of the 19th century; here they combined leisure time activities with a visit to the nearby casino.

    Exterior of the Paco cemetery. BN This cemetery was built as a general burial place for Catholics.

    Ground plan, elevation and sectional view of the "Salón de Isabel II". F. Cortés. 1844. SHM This building, made from wood and thatched with palm over bamboo cane in the typical style of Philippine houses, was constructed on the Bagumbayan field to commemorate the coming-of-age of the Queen.

    Project for the construction of an avenue in Manila starting at the exit of the Parian gate ravelin. SGE After the 1868 revolution, an urban planning project was drawn up for Manila; this comprised the construction of fourteen roads on the south side of the river and thirteen others on the north side. Besides dividing up the city, these would also serve as firebreaks.


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    The "City of God": churches, convents and monasteries
    In the Philippines, the baroque churches of the Spanish colonial period constitute the most emblematic element of the country's architectural heritage.

    The religious orders played a decisive role when the Spaniards reached the Philippines; they filled Intramuros with churches, monasteries, and convents, scattering the city with religious buildings, which also performed social and welfare functions, it was the "City of God"
    . 16th-century Manila was ravaged by fire time and time again. Homes and churches were devoured by flames. Sedeña, a Jesuit, taught the Philippine people how to work and lay stone, and Manila bloomed once more with new churches built "in the European style", but their sheer weight and rigidity made them fragile in the face of earth tremors. In 1645, the city was destroyed by an earthquake. Almost everything crumbled, except the church of San Agustín.
    New churches were built; these had more robust proportions and were not so high, and followed the style adopted in seismic zones in America; a new mestizo architecture had emerged and this was to be called "earthquake baroque". Later on, in 1863 and 1880, earthquakes were to devastate Manila once more. Almost everything crumbled, except the church of San Agustín.
    San Agustín (1604), a permanent miracle in stone, a church built in the "severe baroque" style with Spanish and Italian influences imported from the "Virreinato" of Mexico.

    The Binondo church after the 1863 earthquake. Álbum de fotografías de vistas y tipos de Filipinas. End of the 19th century. BN Its façade was characteristic of those to be seen in Manila, as was that of the monastery church of San Francisco which no longer exists. Typical elements are lateral towers, trapezium-shaped gable ends topped with a vaulted niche, small octagonal-shaped windows and twin columns.

    Binondo church. 19th century. AGI The church built in this Chinese quarter, founded in 1596, was the work of the architect Domingo de la Cruz González, and is one of the architectural heritages of Manila.

    Santa Rosa de Lima Monastery. AGI This plan dated 1788 belongs to a project drawn up by Captain Domingo de la Cruz, which was never carried out. The façade of the church comprises a gigantic row of dressed pilasters, similar to those used in the construction of some of the buildings in Antigua Guatemala.

    Ground plan of the San Clemente seminary. 1706. AGI This was the work of the priest Juan Bautista Sidoti. The arrangement of its main floor follows the Renaissance style urban palace model, with an interior patio and an enormous flight of stairs, this model being commonly adopted in many Spanish cities.

    Façade of the monastery of San Juan de Dios. José Nadrada. BN The merging of West with East is obvious in this façade: the front of the building is in the El Escorial or Carmelite style, and is flanked by Chinese-style towers.

    Santo Domingo church. Álbum fotográfico... End of the 19th century. BN This was the fifth church to be built by the Dominican friars. It was inaugurated in 1868. It is the work of the first "qualified" Philippine architect Félix Rojas, and was constructed in the neogothic style. Its façade is a literal imitation of the façade of York Cathedral in England (13th and 14th centuries).

    Santo Domingo church in Manila. 1861. SHM This fourth Dominican church was destroyed in the 1863 earthquake. Constructed with three naves and a "very Philippine" façade with twin pillars, it has baroque elements with "Gesú style" eaves and a split pediment.

    The Jesuit church. 1884. SHM This was the fourth church to be built by the Jesuits in Manila, and construction work began in 1878 in accordance with the plans drawn up by Félix Rojas, the first Philippine architect. There is a remarkable amount of metal structural elements which gives it an air of modernity, although the general design continued to follow the classical style.

    Jesuit church. Manuel Herbella. 1869. SHM The third Jesuit church was built by Friar Campion around the year 1625, and was destroyed in the 1863 earthquake. In 1867, the military engineer Herbella drew up a plan of the condition of the building for the purpose of drawing up a budget for its demolition.

    Monastery of San Juan de Dios. Mapas de América y Filipinas en los libros españoles de los siglos XVI y XVIII by Francisco Vindel. BN In 1656, the medical friars of San Juan de Dios took charge of the hospital of the Brotherhood of Mercy. In 1850, the hospital of San Juan de Dios was sited next to the Parian gate.

    Photograph of the tower of San Agustín after the earthquake. Francisco van Camp. 1880. SHM This church, whose construction was completed in 1604, has been described as a permanent miracle in stone, since it withstood the strong earth tremors that shook Manila after it was built. This church follows the severe baroque style, but incorporates Herrera and Vignolesque influences, which reached the archipelago from the Viceroyalty of Mexico. It is included in the World Heritage List of buildings.

    The church of San Sebastián under construction. Revista de Obras Públicas. 1897 Not only the main structure of this building, but also its walls and even the intersecting vaulting, were of metal construction. This was the fruit of neogothic tendencies and the Industrial Revolution.

    San Sebastián church in Quiapo. Revista de Obras Públicas. 1897 This was a pioneer in the field of prefabricated construction. It incorporates metal constructions made in Belgium in accordance with the design drawn up by the engineer Genaro Palacios y Guerra.

    Parish church. 1849. SHM Architecture began to adapt to earthquake conditions; the dimensions of constructions were made lower and wider, walls were made thicker and buttresses were made stouter, while upper structures were made lighter.

    Manila parish church. SHM Parish churches were constructed in accordance with projects reflecting designs similar to those of churches built in Spain and America, although local techniques were used.

    Tower of the Quiapo church. 1850-1898. AHN The towers of Philippine churches are a combination of Renaissance bell towers and pagodas. Their presence is the architectural symbol par excellence of the Christian faith, which was carried to the Philippines by Spanish missionaries.

    Tower of the Santa Cruz church. 1850-1898. AHN Many of the towers of Philippine churches comprise a series of sections whose girth decreases as they climb upwards. Their shape and dimensions are reminiscent of the composition of other Asiatic styles of architecture.


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    The Cathedral: enduring and standing

    Is there any other city in the world whose cathedral has been rebuilt as many as seven times?

    The first cathedral is constructed in 1581, damaged by a typhoon in 1582, and destroyed by fire in 1583.
    The second cathedral is rebuilt using stone, 1592, destroyed by earthquake damage in 1600.
    The third cathedral is constructed in 1614, destroyed by earthquake damage in 1645.
    The fourth cathedral is constructed between 1654 and 1671 by Bishop Miguel Poblete.
    Juan de Uguccioni built the new fifth version of the cathedral in 1750, achieving a harmonious construction upon the remains of the old cathedral, which had not the least symmetry or decoration. The new cathedral was: admired by all who contemplate it; they never tire of wondering how in this distant land it has possible to apply the exact rules of such a stringent architectural form. (Fray Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta, 1757)
    The fifth cathedral was heavily damaged by the 1863 earthquake, and plans for the construction of the sixth version were undertaken between 1870 and 1879, in accordance with the project drawn up by Serrano Salaverri. This new cathedral was the fruit of eclecticism at its purest, reproducing the Romanic style which was so in vogue in Europe during those 19th century years.
    Designed to withstand earthquake damage, its author was to have no inkling of the destructive power that mankind was to hold in the palm of its hand, and which would be used just seven decades later to destroy his work. Today, the seventh version of the cathedral still stands.

    The cathedral tower after the 1880 earthquake. Francisco van Camp. SHM The 1880 earthquake caused considerable damage in the city of Manila, and particularly to the octagonal, four-section structure of the cathedral.

    Preliminary project for the ground plan. 1870. AHN Drawing made by Luciano Oliver of the works being undertaken on the cathedral in a preliminary project incorporating two naves with chapels.

    Condition of the ground floor of the cathedral in 1863, according to Vicente Serrano Salaverri. 1872. AHN The 1863 earthquake caused serious damage to the old cathedral. Its ground plan with three naves was designed by Salaverri when he took charge of the reconstruction works in 1871.

    Ground plan of the cathedral in 1753. AGI The cathedral was first built in 1581 of cane and nipa palm, and was destroyed by fire in 1583.

    Drawing of the oldest picture of the cathedral still preserved. 1750. AGI Manila cathedral was reconstructed on several occasions as a result of damage caused by earthquakes, cyclones, fires and other causes bringing ruin to the building.

    Preliminary project for the main façade. Vicente Serrano Salaverri. 1872. AHN The architect proposed for the cathedral reconstruction works the use of granite for the ashlars and base, volcanic rock for the foundation bed, cast iron for the framework, and hollow blocks for the upper section of the façade, the arches and the wall panels.

    Main façade and ground plan. Vicente Serrano Salaverri in Colección de planos... 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid Salaverri drew up the project for a building in the neo-Romanic style, with oriental influence geometric decoration reminiscent of Byzantium.

    Main façade. Vicente Serrano Salaverri. 1872. AHN This was the condition of the main façade, built in the classical style with heavy Doric columns, after the 1863 earthquake, according to a drawing made by Salaverri for the purpose of restoration works.

    General ground plan of the cathedral in the project drawn up by Vicente Serrano Salaverri. 1872. AHN In this ground plan the architect extends the choir and changes the shape of the transept arm extremities from square to semicircular.

    Timber framework for the reconstruction of the roof for the preliminary project drawn up by Vicente Serrano Salaverri. 1872. AHN Rising from the cathedral roofing is an octagonal dome with groups of three large windows on each of its sides; it is topped with red copper laid in fluted laminas.

    Cross-section. Vicente Serrano Salaverri. 1872. BETSICCP, Madrid Project for the roof over the naves, with twin round arch canted groined vaulting supported on groups of four columns and twin pilasters.

    Longitudinal section. Vicente Serrano Salaverri. 1872. BETSICCP, Madrid An endeavour was made to maintain the same style on the interior of the naves as on the exterior with a profusion of gilt and distemper murals by the Italian artist Giovane Dibella.

    Main façade. Signed by Francisco de Castro Ponte, chief engineer. 1894. AHN Project for the construction of two twin towers for Manila Cathedral.

    Ground plan of the cathedral. Signed by Manuel Ramírez Bazán, the inspector general, in 1882. AHN After Salaverri, the work was continued by the engineer Eduardo López Navarro, and after this by Manuel Ramírez Bazán, who presented another solution with a project in which the tower was free-standing.

    Main façade with the modifications incorporated during its reconstruction. Eduardo López Navarro. 1877. AHN Plan showing the change made to the second section of the façade and to the type of roofing, which are reminiscent of those used in iron architecture.


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    Bahai-na-cubo, Bahai-na-bato: nipa palm, wood and stone
    If one avoids the common tendency to divide the world into West and East as if it were a piece of fruit, then the Philippine house can be seen to belong simultaneously to several different worlds.
    Fernando Zialcita

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries Manila witnessed the birth of a new form of construction that responded both to earthquakes and to the tropical climate: heat and heavy rainfall. This architectural style combines elements of the Asiatic and Hispanic traditions. Stone, pottery and wood were the building materials used over centuries.
    The first buildings erected by the Spaniards were similar to the native constructions and were built of cane and nipa, but after the many fires that destroyed these constructions it was decided that buildings and city walls would be constructed from masonry using volcanic stone: adobe.
    Houses built of stone were fairly fire-resistant but were too rigid to withstand earthquake damage, while constructions based on wooden frameworks were more flexible in earth tremor situations. This gave rise to a synthesis which combined stone with wood.
    The 17th century house had two storeys: a ground floor with very thick walls and an upper storey made of wood with overhanging balconies, which were closed off with windows whose panes were made from capiz, a flat translucent shell which is an essential ingredient of the Philippine style.
    Between 1780 and 1880, the "geometric style" became widespread. The overhanging balcony -the "volada"-, now extended around the whole of the façade, accentuating the horizontality of the buildings. During the 19th century, the use of enormous pillars was reduced to a minimum; false ceilings and wooden walls with lattice-work on their upper part framed the living quarters.
    During the last third of the 19th century the "volada" became an open gallery decorated with plant motifs; this is the "Floral" style. In 1863 and 1880, fresh earthquakes shook Manila, destroying many buildings; new rules were established to modernize the traditional methods and confidence in the stability of structures relied on the multiplicity of their internal ties.
    The Hispanic and the Filipino, in the sphere of architecture just as in any other, is a logical continuation of native elements, and represents an advance over the indigenous while at the same time paying homage to it, accepting it, and allowing it to continue. Pedro Ortiz Armengo

    View of a tower and part of the village of Samboangan. Fernando Brambila. Collection of drawings and engravings made on the Malaspina Expedition. 1789-1794. MN The native Philippine house was characterized by a pitched roof with two or four angles, supported on a framework resting on four or more wooden pillars. It raised above the ground on a platform of earth.

    "Overhanging balconies", closed off with windowpanes made from capiz, a flat translucent shell which is an essential ingredient of the Philippine style.

    A private home in Escolta Street in Manila. Casto Olano. 1871. AHN The blending of east with west produced beautiful architecture, which became popular during the 17th century and characteristic of the unique Philippine style; Friar Francisco Alcina was to term this "mestizo" architecture.

    Groups of dwellings made from nipa, in Mamante in the Tondo district of Manila. Álbum fotográfico... End of the 19th century. BN In the Philippines, family homes adapted to locally available materials and the climatic conditions of the area; the result was a type of building which was common to the whole of south-eastern Asia.

    Private home in Centeno street in the Santa Cruz district in the city of Manila. Francisco van Camp. SHM Stone-built constructions withstood fires but were helpless in the face of earth tremors. In Manila, a mixture of wood and masonry was used in construction work; roofs were large and spectacular, and overhanging verandahs closed off with "capiz" shell window-panes were characteristic of this style.

    Building techniques designed to avoid the devastating effects of earthquakes. End of the 19th century. AHN The earthquakes that shook Manila in 1863 and 1880 caused a great deal of damage. Reconstruction of the city was undertaken by civil engineers who adopted the traditional combination formula, while adapting this to the adverse seismic conditions.

    Building techniques designed to avoid the devastating effects of earthquakes. End of the 19th century. AHN After the ravage caused in 1880 it was recommended that the ground floor of buildings should be constructed using a timber framework with multiple ties and that the external walls should be brick-built.

    Condition of the houses in Quiotán street in the Santa Cruz district of Manila, after the 1880 earthquake. Francisco van Camp. SHM After the 1880 earthquake, the Spanish administration passed legislation to regulate building works; these introduced new techniques and materials into the sphere of construction and modernized the way in which building works were undertaken.

    Reconstruction of the Santa Potenciana palace. Manuel Ramírez Bazán. 1885. AHN Founded in 1589 by Philip II at the request of Bishop Salazar as a school for the education of young girls in Manila, this was a magnificent building with its large windows, balconies and decorative iron grilles.

    Ground plan of Santa Potenciana. Manuel López Bayo. 1882. AHN This palace was destroyed by the 1880 earthquake, and was rebuilt, again as a residence for the governor; it was to fulfil this role until the end of the Spanish colonial presence.

    Reconstruction of the Santa Potenciana palace. Manuel Ramírez Bazán. 1885. AHN In 1866, the building was made the official residence of the governor, although shortly after the governor moved out and it was taken over by the military authorities.

    Reformation works carried out at the barracks of the civil guard at the headquarters in Batangas, on the island of Luzon (Philippines). Luis Pereyra. 1896. AHN From 1866 onwards, the Spanish architects and civil engineers took charge of planning and carrying out works of all types, whether civil or military.

    House in the San Miguel district of Manila. Album fotográfico... End of the 19th century. BN Private homes were built with wide, overhanging roofs which protected them from the sun, high temperatures and torrential rain.

    View of the French inn at La Barranca, in the district of Binondo, Manila. Album fotográfico... End of the 19th century. BN During the colonial period, Binondo was the most densely-populated district of Manila; Chinese silks, Persian carpets, ivory, perfumes, spices and other oriental treasures were traded there.


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    Libros antiguos y de colección en IberLibro
    Government and administration
    Large civil buildings such as the "Palacio de Gobierno", the "Ayuntamiento" and the "Aduana" represented the government institutions of the Spanish Administration.

    The Philippines formed part of the administrative system adopted by the Spanish Crown for its overseas territories. From the 16th century, these islands were an enclave which was controlled by the "virreinato" of New Spain. They had a Governor who was also Captain General of the archipelago. Manila was the seat of central government and the municipal districts were organized in accordance with the peninsular model.
    The most representative building of all the government institutions was the "Palacio de Gobierno", known also as the "Casas Reales" (royal houses), the "Audiencia" or "palacio de la Capitanía General"; this occupied a whole block on one of the sides of the "plaza mayor". It underwent several transformations and reconstruction works and as from 1845 its main façade, built in the European style, contrasted sharply with all the rest which reflected the Philippine style at its purestverhanging verandahs with "capiz shell". It was destroyed in the 1863 earthquake.
    Opposite the "Palacio de Gobierno" was the "Cabildo building" (town council) or "Casas de la Ciudad"; this was rebuilt in 1751, and with its series of arches at ground level is an example of the European type of urban municipal building, with clear Italian and Spanish architectural influences; it occupied another side of the "plaza mayor". It underwent several refurbishment works and after being destroyed in the 19th century a new building was constructed, but today only some of its walls remain.
    Later on, the "Aduana" and "Hacienda pública" (Treasury) became more prominent in the city when a specific building was erected for their use: this had twin patios, was solidly built and very imposing in a purely academic way, and was situated right by the edge of the north wall of the city and beside the river.
    The royal houses are most beautiful and have a great many windows facing the sea, and are built on the main square out of stone and with two patios, with upper and lower corridors and with stout pillars. The town council buildings are made of stone; their lower part houses the prison, the "audiencia" and the ordinary mayors. Antonio de Morga 1600

    The "Ayuntamiento" in Manila. Eduardo López Navarro in Colección de planos... 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid This is an example of an urban palace in the European style. It follows the Bramante model used for constructing the house of Raphael in Borgo Vaticano in its upper storey, while its ground floor and patio follow the model laid down for the Farnese Palace, which was the finest example of palaces in 16th century Rome.

    Governor's Palace. Vicente Serrano Salaverri in Colección de planos correspondientes a varias de las construcciones realizadas o proyectadas por la Inspección General de Obras Públicas de las Islas Filipinas. 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid The main façade of the Palace was rebuilt in 1845 in the European style, with dressed stone ground floor structure and an attic; all other façades had overhanging balconies closed off with "capiz" shell window panes in the typical Philippine style.

    Main façade of the old "Aduana" building built in Manila. Tomás Cortés. 1828. SHM This building was admired for the beauty of its construction and its classic dimensions. Its upper part was heavily built, and this was the reason behind its destruction in the 1863 earthquake. It was built once more in 1874.

    The "Ayuntamiento" in Manila. Eduardo López Navarro in Colección de planos... 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid This splendid building is an outstanding example of urban architecture, as can be seen by the street-level arcades, which is where the "Plaza Mayor" becomes part of the building itself, so that under their shade business contracts for provisioning the city may be concluded.

    Royal Palace. Tomás Cortés. 1827. SHM When first constructed, the Governor's palace housed the "Real Audiencia" on its main floor. In 1793, when the building was in a bad state of repair, the "Real Audiencia" moved to the adjoining block.

    Ground plan of the old "Aduana" building built in Manila. Tomás Cortés. 1828. SHM Although its rectangular ground plan with its two interior patios is reminiscent of the Court Prison, which is today the Ministry ofr Foreign Affairs in Madrid, or the "Hospital de la Cruz" in Toledo, this building represents an academic form, that of beaux arts.

    Sketch of Malacañang Palace and its surroundings. Gregorio Verdú. 1856. SHM Malacañang started off as a house made of wood, situated on the banks of the Pasig River on the area of land bearing the same name, which is situated in the San Miguel district. In 1802, it was purchased from a private individual by an army colonel.

    Ground plan of the Malacañang Palace. Luis del Rosario y Rivas. 1897. AHN This palace was originally designed as a summer residence for governors. After the 1863 earthquake, it was here that the governor took up permanent residence. Thereafter, it underwent several modification works and amplifications, which one after the other were influenced by the architectural influences of the times, despite which it still maintained a characteristically Philippine style.

    Governor's Palace. Vicente Serrano Salaverri in Colección de planos... 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid The ground plan of the Palace housed the private chambers of the Governor, a number of government offices such as those of the General Army Counting House and the Secretariat for War and Government.

    Plan of the Manila Consulate. 19th century. SHM

    Plan and sectional view of the Consulate. 19th century. SHM This was a large building sited within Intramuros; besides being the Consulate court of justice, it also housed the Nautical Academy and the Business School.

    Summer residence of the captain general of the Philippines. La Ilustración Española y Americana. 1874. BN

    The Malacañang Palace. Luis del Rosario y Rivas. 1897. AHN


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