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Tema: Meet The Man Who Pressed The Button Of Communications

  1. #1
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    Meet The Man Who Pressed The Button Of Communications

    Meet The Man Who Pressed The Button Of Communications

    His works and struggles


    Father Landell de Moura Surely, we all admire the great men and women who left an indelible and positive mark for humanity, in every manifestation of human wisdom. Some were philosophers, clergymen, poets, artists and scientists. These peope were moved by great inspiration. Many had short lives, passing by Earth but for a few brief moments, much like a celestial body would streak through the Firmament, though leaving profound and permanent landmarks for the future generations .
    Those landmarks were creations in the search for a better tomorrow. Each one of these great persons came, took his/her turn, passed the baton, and went.

    In each fleeting moment in humanity's timeline, they gave us yet another "brick" to construct a better "building" for us to live in.
    But... not all these great persons, who spent all their lives in the research of their discoveries, received the appropriate credit for their efforts.
    One of those, was Father Roberto Landell de Moura - Father Landell, as he liked to be called - a Brazilian who was born in the city of Porto Alegre - Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.
    Do you know him? - You don't?

    Well, we in Brazil spent our time in school being told that Guglielmo Marconi was the inventor of radio.
    But the man who for the first time accomplished the transmission of the human voice by a wireless machine, that is, by irradiating an electromagnetic wave, modulated by an audio signal, was none other than this Brazilian scientist/priest.
    He conducted his first public experiment on June 03, 1900 in front of journalists and the General Consul of Great Britain, Mr. C.P.Lupton, in the City of São Paulo, Brazil, reaching a distance of approximately 8 kms.
    The points of transmission and reception were: the Santana Borough and Avenida Paulista in the downtown sector.

    During that time, the only available means of communications were the Wired Telegraph invented by Samuel Morse (1837), the Wired Telephone by Graham Bell (1876) and radiotelegraphy by Marconi (1895).

    The great challenge was to transmit an audio signal without the aid of wires.
    Several scientists were trying to accomplish this, but Father Landell was the first to succeed.
    His merits are great ones, when we take into account that he developed it totally on his own!.
    Father Landell, a person of mystical qualities, was also a very practical man, indeed.
    Many great scientists are superlative in the applications of theory. Father Landell integrated theoretical and practical qualities at the same time.
    He was the scientist, an engineer and a worker.

    One year after the above experiment in public, he receives his first patent from the Brazilian government. It was described as " equipment for the purpose of phonetic transmissions through space, land and water elements at a distance with or without the use of wires".
    It is dated March 09, 1901.

    Four months later, conscious that his invention had real value, he left Brazil for the United States of America with the intent of patenting the machine at the U.S.Patent Office in Washington, DC.
    With scarce resources, he had to rely on friends such as Daniel Tamagno to push ahead his project.
    In spite of great difficulties, three patents were finally awarded: "The Wave Transmitter" (Oct 11, 1904) which is the precursor of today's radio transceiver; " The Wireless Telephone" and the "Wireless Telegraph", both dated Nov 22, 1904.

    In the same year, he conceived yet another invention: "The Telephotorama", or "The Distance Vision", the precursor of television as we know it today, which would be demonstrated publicly only by the year of 1926.
    A few of his manuscripts infere that some video communications problems had already been solved by him.
    This allows us to conclude that Father Landell was in the path to create "The Transmission and Reception of Images".

    He can be considered a pioneer of television, even if few documents have survived him. It cannot be determined to what point he researched the subject.
    Some of those documents were studied by Telebras and a conclusion was reached that the sketches were "A Study to Build a Telegraph Register".
    That indicates that at the minimum, Father Landell idealized a remote control via radio or teletype, inventions that would become known by World War I.

    With the support of three U.S.Patents, he believed that his future was a bright one.
    Upon his return to Brazil, he wrote to the then President of Brazil, Mr. Rodrigues Alves, requesting the use of two Navy ships to conduct radio transmission experiments.

    In the missive, he expressed that the vessels should be placed at "At The Greatest Distance Possible Among Them, Since In the Future, Radio Would Be Used For Space Travel Communications".
    That statement caused him to be judged mentally unstable, if we take into account that after a long period, he received a presidential diplomatic response letter, declaring the unavailability of such Navy equipment.

    As far as in space travel is concerned, we can affirm the following: "The Rest is History...."
    Due to the incredulous mindset of the authorities of that era, many important pieces of his equipment were destroyed.
    As we can see, Father Landell's singular mind and the magnitude of his works, were not given the proper recognition.

    His name, as well as his Country d'ont appear in the legitimate credits, once its happens, it should be reason of great pride for all Brazilians.
    Information was gathered from several sources and shown on a July 16, 1988 report of a Porto Alegre newspaper, and FEPLAM - (Fundação Educacional Padre Landell de Moura) - The Father Landell Educational Foundation.

    Recently, CIENTEC built a replica of The Wave Transmitter and upon conclusion of the tests, it was determided that it can reach a broad spectrum, even FM.
    Within its limitations, the transceiver works, and is uncontested proof of his genius.
    The equipment is on display for public viewing at the FEPLAM, in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul.

    A Brief Biographical History of Father Landell De Moura
    Born on January 21, 1861 in the City of Porto Alegre, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Ordained as a Roman Catholic Priest in Rome, in the year of 1886. There, he also studied in the field of Physics and Chemistry Research, developing the first concepts about "Unity and Physics Forces" and
    "Universal Harmony". These theories would guide him to his future inventions.
    He also took interest in the "Physics and Science" and the "Medicine and Chemistry" fields.
    Father Landell researched that all bodies - animate and inanimate - were encircled by a coloured luminous energy halo, invisible to the naked eye.

    Some of his documents pointing to that discovery exist, dating from the year 1907.
    In fact, he photographed the effect in 1909, which would be known as "The Kirlian Effect", due to the works of the Russian couple Semyon and Valentina Kirlian.
    Father Landell passed away in Porto Alegre, on June 30, 1928.
    He was an inspired human being, who was way ahead his time
    This is our humble tribute to him.


  2. #2
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    Re: Meet The Man Who Pressed The Button Of Communications

    Libros antiguos y de colección en IberLibro
    WAVE TRANSMITTER Roberto Landell de Moura (1861-1928) - Brasil Patent n. 771.917 - 11/10/1904 - United States Of America Government - obtained from "U.S.PATENT OFFICE - WASHINGTON, D.C."

    Prototype of the "Wave Transmitter" built by The Science and Technology Foundation of Rio Grande do Sul - CIENTEC, under technical direction of Eng. José Germany and the technical work of the team of Eng. Antonio Carlos Solano. This apparatus was built by a proposal of Eng. Otto Albuquerque, at the time executive director of LDN/RS. This prototype is in exhibition in the Center of Permanent Educational Foundation Father Landell de Moura - Ipiranga, av., 3501 - Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil - 90.160-001. Specifications that form integral part of the Patent Letter N.771.917, dated of OCT. 11/1904 Solicitation of February 9, 1903 - Series N. 142.440 "To whom it may concern:"
    Know that me, Roberto Landell de Moura, citizen of the Republic of Brasil resident in the district of Manhattan of New York city, New York State, invented a new Wave Transmitter, that makes the following specifications: My invention is related to Message Transmissions, from a point to another, without the aid of wires, or concisely the communicating through space.
    It has the objective of producing better results with simplified apparatus, using certains principles that I discovered. Up to now, when we had to transmit signals, the transmission was made by means of apparatus of manual operation. In some cases, these were substituted by automatic mechanisms; but the handling of such mechanisms, or the manipulation of a key, demanding certain abilities and experience of the operator. In agreement with my invention, I produce, firstly, Electrics Oscillations and a Light Trembling, by means of Sound Vibrations, it can be of the Human Voice or others sounds.
    I use these Electric or Luminous Oscillations, so produced, to telephone or to telegraph through space . In such transmissions, and especially telephoning, I can use inventions similar to the ones that I described in my previous solicitation, protocoled in OCT 04 - 1901, series N.77.576.
    To produce the two species of mentioned oscillations I invented a disposition of circuits and of certains apparatus that I denominated "phonetic switch". *Obs:Web comments: (a electro mechanical microphone).

    My phonetic switch consists, essentially, of a pair of contacts capable of reproducing the sounds vibrations , or the vibrations from any source that can control the primary circuit of a high frequency induction coil, this primary is tied up to the primary of a Ruhmkorff coil for transmission.
    The Sound Vibrations on the Fonetic Switch are transformed in Electrics or Light Waves, the one which, passing to the receiving station, are received and act on appropriate apparatus, by means of which they are perceptible with the use of a Phone Receiver,of a lamp, of a Recording Morse, or similar thing. My invention is in full detail described in the following specifications, and illustraded in the enclosed drawings.

    In relationship to fig.1 it is a cut of my phonetic switch , with the whole parts represented. In 2 the illustration represents a regulatory key for the nucleus of the induction coil. In 5 the circuits transmitters are represented with the apparatus; represented in their places. In 1 we have the box with non conductor material, and A' is the cover. This cover is made to contain a Resonant Chamber, whose base has a perforated disk A2 and is sustained by the receptacle there is a diaphragm (a), having in their central point a slight depression. (a').

    Placed inside of the receptacle and supported in appropriate projections, there is an Induction Coil, that has the primary (d) and the secondary (d') coiled around of the iron nucleus (d2).This nucleus is hollow, and in its interior a central axis exists (B) supported in its superior extremity by the perforated extremity of the nucleus and in its inferior extremity, it is connected inwardly by the nut (b) screwed in the inferior extremity of the nucleus, and the guide (b4). The axis has a head (B') which can be manipulated. The function of the adjustment is to allow that the narrow opening of air, between the extremety axis, in (b2) and the diaphragm (a), in (a'), be in such an arranged way that the vibrations of the articulated words produces a continuous, fast and regular movement, and interrupt the circuit. By means of key K (represented in 2), the nut (b) it can be screwed when the axis is adjusted, introducing the stems (k) and (k4), of the key in the holes (b3) of the nut.
    Fastened in the superior extremity of the cover (A') a flexible tube exists (C) with a mouth (c).
    To use the apparatus, the operator speaks in agreement with a established code or in any other way, through the mouth (c).The propagation of the Sound Waves through the tube, passing between of the central opening of the cover (A2) act over the diaphragm (a), producing a corresponding vibration, and in consequence if the adjustments had been correctly done, a fast series of contacts and interruptions or successive contacts will happen between the diafragm and the extremity of(b2), corresponding the frequency to the waves that were produced.
    These contacts and interruptions determine pulses or current variations , in the secondary circuits 12, being irradiated by the Antenna.

    The production and the interruptions of contacts have as consequence, to produce current pulsations in the primary coil, corresponding very aproximately to the voice tones or the sounds produced.
    Certainly, it is impossible to obtain an adjustment of such perfect contact that reproduces all the harmonics and turn a perfect articulation, but in the other hand, in order to get the positive effects, of discharge, the other that I will refer now I think to be best, other than the simple change of the circuit resistence. It is not necessary to say that I can adjust the contacts in such a way to produce constant contacts and variable pressure, requirements so that the microphone will work perfectly; but with practical intention, I think that is better to produce the pulses in the way that I described.
    Considering now (5), I will describe the connections of my apparatus, to obtain an effective system.
    F is a Ruhmkorff coil or any other induction coil of high potency, adjusted in way to produce a flash of certain length, - let us say of about a 1/4 inch or more. The primary of this coil (f) is tied up to the the circuit 15 and 16, that includes the main battery M and the phonetic switch. The secondary coil, marked (f') is connected by the wires 7 and 8 to the terminals 21 and 20 to the
    irradiant wires, that can be of common form or any aerial conductor, with or without terminal
    grounded in one of the sides.

    A terminal pair (11) and (12) to produce flash, is foreseen, to be inserted in the circuit (7) (8), by the simple closing of the switch (S'). It is also linked to the secondary circuit, a capacitor of convenient capacity. The primary circuit (15) (16) is going from the Ruhmkorff coil to the primary terminals of the induction coil (D), in the phonetic switch.
    The secondary coil (d') is tied up to a local circuit (19), that contains a Phone Receiver (T), and the primary circuit includes a lamp, that can be used to transmit or to receive messages. There is too a capacitor (G) of convenient capacity, inserted in the primary circuit. The way to use the described system, is the following: To transmit electromagnetic waves corresponding to the Sound Vibrations, the key (S') is closed and the the key (S) is opened, and the operator starts to produce the wanted sounds, by means of the fonetic switch. A pulses succesions is so produced in the primary circuit coil (F), whose effect is increased by the presence of the capacitor (G), that absorbs the current excess, it contribute to the fast demagnetization of the induction coil and still disable the the production of flashes between the diaphragm and the point of the axis.
    These pulses in the primary are very fast , when the adjustments are appropriately done, they produce pulses of high potential in the secondary.
    To produce Light Oscillations by means of the switch, in the transmitter station, I use the natural human voice, because the trembling produced corresponding in form and frequency to the initial sounds, and being these sounds produced in a convenient way with the aid of adequate apparatus, in the receiving station, they allow the recognition more ou less perfect of the original sounds, and seen as a lot of words or tones can be recognized by its intrinsic value, as much as for any value that can be lent by means of any arbitrary code, an enough number of different words can be selected, to constitute a complete and very efficient code.

    Of course other sources of soundvibrations can be used to substitute the human voice. So, to produce electricoscillations by means of the same switch, it can be used in the transmitter station,
    a constituted source of sounds by a musical instrument similar to a small organ , having a group of sheets or acoustic tubes tied up to the mouth (C). By the strong diaphragm vibration, it produces light oscillations or electricity that can be received, after transmitted, by means of any sensitive apparatus. In addition to this transmission method by means of electromagnet or luminous waves, as I said, some of the particularities hereby described they can be used together with my other systems.In one of these systems, I use waves or intermittent signals of light , to transmit codes signals.

    In the present case I can use the lamp (e), in a similar way, producing the initial variations of current by means of the phonetic switch. If the light pulsations are fast, the adjustment of the terminals and diaphragm can be regulated, untill the width of the variations is enough to eliminate all the tones less the fundamental ones. In fact more weight can be given to the diaphragm, if it necessary, or its pulsations can be in another way, retarded. In the case of the transmission to be done by light waves , I use reflector and I can also use screens of several materials, such as sheets of colored glass, and it is possible to substitute the lamp indicated by a cathodic lamp, of the type described in my other solicitation, or other light types.
    Observe that the most important and, in fact, the essential aspect of my invention is the employment of a transmitter that turns on and and off by the effect of the sound vibrations, doing the light waves or transmitted eletromagnectics waves corresponding , in a very approximate way, to the sound waves which are produced.

    Original Diagrams of the Wave Transmitter

    Research Material: The incredible Father Landell de Moura (Ernani Fornari), En El Aire: The Light That Talks (Otto Albuquerque), Landell de Moura (B.Hamilton Almeida), The Other Side of The Telecommunications - The Father Landell's saga - (B.Hamilton Almeida), The Man That Pressed The Button Of The Communication - ( Editora Feplam - Seg. Ediçao 1977). Special gratfulness to the friends Francisco Rodrigues Leite - Olegario Vargas - Sonia Rinaldi - Fernando H. de Oliveira - that collaborated sending material that are facilitating me study and research about the labour of our great countryman and cientist work. Special thanks to Arsenio Fornaro for English text version corrections.

    wave transmitter - Roberto Landell de Moura

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