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Tema: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

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    Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    The message from outer-space “ship in serious trouble, return to earth impossible” electrifies the world and for a moment the differences among nations are forgotten. The pulse of the world quickens as the people of all countries share the agony of the astronauts in the pending shipwreck a million miles from the earth. The astronauts are the inspiration of humanity and the sum total of its achievements. In a sense the people are the astronauts and the astronauts are the people.
    This S. 0. S. from outer-space might have been heard five hundred years ago, if there had been radios then, for the Portuguese were the astronauts of the world and their voyages into unchartered seas were as hazardous and terrifying as our flights into space. They either returned or did not. But the promised rewards were greater than the dangers and men set out to accomplish the impossible. The man who encouraged the mariners to be even more daring was Prince Henry the Navigator, a gentle and melancholic man who was the intellectual motivating and guiding force of that period.
    The Prince was half English and half Portuguese and his per son represents the fusion of two great maritime traditions. ‘With his blessing, the keels of the fast, seaworthy and highly maneuverable caravels criss-crossed the seas and oceans in all latitudes and the red Cross of the Order of Christ could be seen from the torrid waters of the equator to the icy waters of the polar regions. The soft, sonorous, musical Portuguese language became the first modern lingua franca to be spoken on all continents, a cultural achievement matched only by Portuguese sea prowess. With the circum navigation of the globe, Portugal forces the sea to give up its last great secret and the maritime glory of that tiny country reaches its zenith. Through dauntless courage, magnificent seaman ship and the ability! to accomplish the unaccomplishable, the Portuguese, almost single-handed, discovered and explored the face of the globe until it became a mundus portucalensis.
    And this brings us to the central theme of Dr. da Silva’s book: the tragic but significant voyages of the Corte Real brothers from the Azores, who built and outfitted ships at their own expense and went sailing for new worlds. Gaspar is the first to sail, and when he fails to return, his brother Miguel goes to search for him. Nothing is ever heard from them.
    Centuries later, their “calling card”, a forty ton rock, bearing their name, national symbols of Portugal, and date of arrival, is discovered. These inscriptions are the foundation of the thesis that the Portuguese were the first Pilgrims to set foot on American soil.
    The author of this remarkable book is Dr. Manuel Luciano da Silva, Portuguese-American physician from Bristol, R. I. who, through twenty years of research without ally support from historical societies or government grants, was able to rescue the first chapter of American history from oblivion. This shirt-sleeved researcher often donned rubber boots to scrub the Dighton Rock at low tide in order to decipher its inscriptions better.
    In 1960 Dr. da Silva presented the results of his research to the First International Congress of the History of the Discoveries, held in Lisbon. His presentation was enthusiastically received.
    Dr. da Silva has joined fragmentary but essential pieces of an historical jig-saw puzzle to prove dramatically and conclusively that the Corte-Real Brothers, whom he calls the Portuguese Pilgrims, landed on the New England Coast, together with their crews over a hundred years before the Plymouth Rock Pilgrims.
    In addition to reconstructing the exciting missing chapter in American history, he has succeeded in recreating the feverish period of discovery and exploration. He has done this by introducing many historical documents, illustrations and photographs rarely seen in this country. Dr. da Silva often gives us a new point of view and a new perspective on many aspects of the history of discovery and exploration. “Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock!” with its bite will raise new controversies, infuriate some readers and delight many more. The physician from Bristol makes a significant contribution to the history of discovery and exploration. The history of America is now correct and complete.
    Professor of Modern Languages, Rhode Island College.
    March 10, 1971

    pilgrim preface

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    Chapter 1

    There is no other monument in North America that has merited the attention of so many scholars as Dighton Rock. Several investigators puzzled by its inscriptions have re marked that they “believe it will never be interpreted.”
    Dighton Rock has gone through four stages of study:

    • (1) Puritan Period (17th Cent)
    • (2) Phoenician Period (18th Cent),
    • (3) Viking Period (19th Cent,)
    • (4) Portuguese Period (20th Cent).

    In 1918 it was revealed that the Portuguese navigator Miguel Corte Real and his crew engraved the first inscriptions on Dighton Rock (1502-11). Thus, more than a century before the English Pilgrims landed (1620), Miguel Corte Real and his crew were the first Europeans to colonize the territory that is now the United States of America.
    Americans do not yet realize that almost two-thirds of the world was discovered by the Portuguese Navigators. Without knowing where the oceans plunged, Portuguese sailors never lost courage in the face of unknown seas which any attempt at conquering almost always meant getting lost.
    At the start of the discoveries, the population of Portugal was one and a half million. One hundred and fifty years later — when all corners of the world became known — instead of the expected figure of three million, the number of inhabitants was less than one million.
    In the history of man’s exploration Dighton Rock can be considered a stepping stone in our determination to plot and explore the mysteries of the uncharted areas of outer space.

    A cross on the lonely San Miguel Island off the coast of California honoring the Portuguese navigator Cabrilho.
    Both coasts of the United States were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese. The entire coast of California was discovered and named by the Portuguese navigators.
    João Rodrigues Cabrilho, on September 28, 1542, set foot at San Diego, and declared in Portuguese that he was “taking possession of this land, these waters, and this harbor.” The heart of California, San Francisco Bay, was given its name by the Portuguese, Sebastião Sermenho.
    Seventy eight years before the arrival of the Pilgrims (1620) at Plymouth Rock (Massachusetts), Portuguese Pilgrims were already in California.
    In gratitude to the Portuguese navigators, the people of the Golden State established, in San Diego (1913) , the Cabrilho National Monument honoring the discoverer of California.
    The Atlantic coast, from Labrador, along Newfoundland (Terra Nova), Cape Cod (Cabo dos Bacalhaus), all the way down to the tip of Florida, was discovered by the Portuguese navigators many years before sailors of other nations ventured to explore it.
    The Florida peninsula appears on Portuguese maps before Ponce de Leon arrived there (1513) searching for the Fountain of Youth.
    In the XV century the Portuguese had already seen Cape Kennedy, the site of all liftoffs to the moon. Similarly, during the Portuguese Century, Lisbon became the Cape Kennedy of discoveries.
    Cabrilho statue at Cabrilho National Monument in San Diego California
    The Portuguese navigators left on Dighton Rock a message of discovery and exploration for the American people.
    The voyages across the seas of space mark the beginning of a new era in human history. With the explorations of outer space we have taken over where the Portuguese left off with their discoveries.
    Click on each photo for a larger view

    Statue of Gaspar Corte Real, Portuguese navigator, stands on capitol grounds in St. Johns Newfoundland

    Dighton Rock with the inscription name of Miguel Corte Real, the discover of the United States Of America
    Imágenes adjuntadas Imágenes adjuntadas
    Última edición por Hyeronimus; 09/08/2011 a las 13:14

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    The Known World in 1415
    Chapter 2
    Click on photo for larger view.
    The unrolling of the clouds before the first Portuguese discovery in 1419
    Little more than one-third of today’s world was known to the Europeans of 1415. The geographical limits extended to the Scandinavian peninsula and Lapland in the North. To the east there was Iceland, the British Isles down to the shores of Portugal. The southern limits extended from the beginning of the northwest coast of Africa, across the Sahara Desert, to Egypt, along the Red Sea, and south to the Kingdom of Abyssinia. The southeastern limits stretched across Arabia, Persia, India, Ceylon, Sumatra and Java. Mongolia and China both formed the easternmost boundaries.
    In order to comprehend clearly the period of almost a thousand years which preceded the discoveries, we must evaluate the European panorama of human geography. The best method is to make an outline of the upstart protagonists of the Middle Ages in their historical continuity.
    The Middle Ages began after the Barbarian invasions (Visigoths, Huns, and later the Vikings) which led to the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 A.D. For centuries thereafter Europe was enveloped in the Dark Ages. Only during the second half of the Middle Ages did the protagonist Barbarians yield to the Knights who became the elite of the feudalistic society.
    To be knighted was the highest honor. Divisive rivalries and civil wars were maintained so that the oath of knighthood could be bestowed at the battlefield. All the energies of feudalistic Europe were geared to the ideals of chivalry. It was Pope Urban II (1096) who succeeded in transforming the ambitious Knights into fervent Crusaders for the Holy War. Although the crusaders failed in their main objective which was to win back the Holy Land, they brought east and west face to face.
    From the 8th to the 13th Centuries, the Arabs and the other Islamic peoples were the main carriers of Western Civilization. While Europe was being torn apart by almost constant fighting, Moslem scholars not only preserved the learning of the ancient world, but added many discoveries and original works of their own. With increased contact between Europe and Asia, there resulted not only an expansion of trade but also the broadening of the outlook of European thought. Europe suddenly awoke to the wealth and knowledge of the East. The Mediterranean became the commercial center of the world. Once again, the helm of Europe’s destiny exchanged hands from the Crusaders to the Merchants. The Italian Republics, especially Florence, Genoa, Milan and Venice were enriched and flourished to their zenith during their Golden Age.
    Click on photo.
    Iberian Peninsula and N. Africa. Prince henery founded his nautical school at the promontory of Sagres.
    The contact between the Islamic world and the Crusaders and Merchants brought to the Christian World the knowledge of the Arabs, thereby stimulating the great intellectual and artistic awakening known as the period of the Renaissance. Thus, a new breed of protagonists appeared on the European stage: the Scholars.
    The West owes much to the Moors. Unlike the ancient Greeks, who often arrived at conclusions by reasoning alone, the Arab scientists studied and tested their ideas by experimentation. The founding of chemistry, pharmacology, astronomy, and mathematics were greatly enhanced by the Islamic Scholars. The Moslem Empire extended by land from the Indian Ocean to the shores of the future Portugal on the Atlantic Ocean. By civilizing the Lusitanian's, (the future Portugues) the Arabs without realizing it, caused the Portuguese to consider the possibility of a water route to India by navigating around the African Continent.
    Portugal became a nation in 1139 as a result of the efforts of the Western Crusades to push the Moslems out of the Iberian Peninsulas. Practically all of the Portuguese territory was won from the Moors. Continental Portugal, to this day, has kept her regional frontiers for the longest period of time of any other country in the world. Therefore, willing or not, Portugal inevitably had to absorb much of the Arabic agriculture, architecture, language and science.
    Perhaps because of her geographical position “where the land ends and the sea be gins” — Portugal has maintained since her independence — a Portuguese difference — from the rest of Europe. If all protagonists (Barbarians, Knights, Crusaders, Merchants, Scholars) played a part in Portugal’s destiny, their roles were (different and their contributions outstanding.

    Click on picture.
    It was Prince Henry who made Navigators out of the Knights of the Order of Christ and from the Navigators a new cast of protagonists, the Merchants were developed, making Lisbon the commercial center of the world in the 16th Century. Without firing a shot, Portuguese commercial competition caused the ruination of the Italian monopoly on the Mediterranean trade.
    A new kind of Scholar emerged also during the Golden Era of Portugal. They were the most advanced men in navigation, cartography, geography, and mathematics, permitting Portugal, with a population of less than two million people, to hold the largest Empire in the whole world and maintain the Portuguese influence in all Continents for more than a century. Of the twenty Centuries since the beginning of the Christian Era, there is one — the XV Century
    — that we can properly designate as the Portuguese Century of World History.

    By spreading their faith to all parts of the Portuguese Empire, the sailors of Portugal became the Crusaders of the Sea.
    ‘While the Middle Ages ended with the capture of Constantinople by the Turks (1453) and the collapse of the Eastern Roman Empire, the Portuguese navigators by that time had already passed the Bojador Cape and were on their way to crossing the Equator.
    Actually, the first chapter of Modern History was written in 1415 by the Portuguese, when Prince Henry and his men captured Ceuta from the Moors in North Africa. This was indeed the first big step in the age of the great sea explorations. Prince Henry the Navigator chose as his motto of knighthood: “Talent de bien faire” — "Vontade de fazer bem” or “To do good is my desire”. Prince Henry had the habit of signing official documents with the three initials of his name: I.D.A.
    I—Infante (King’s son)
    D—Dom (Title of nobility)
    A—Anrique (Henry was spelled with initial A instead of H).
    The three initials I.D.A. spell the Portuguese word “IDA” which means in English “GO”. “Go, "Go, further and do not be afraid” Prince Henry told his navigators. “GO, GO, GO,” is also the motto for today's explorations of outer space.

    pilgrim chapter 2

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock


    Chapter 3
    Click on picture for larger view.
    Like a finger pointing out to sea, the Promontory of Sagres (aerial view of campus) at the southwest extremity of Portugal, where Prince Henry founded the School of Navigation.
    Even before Prince Henry was born, (1394), Portugal had already shown a maritime vocation due to its long shore line (500 miles) and natural bays. King Dinis had founded the Portuguese Navy in 1317. The same Monarch ordered to be sown the large Leiria pine forest so that the kingdom could be supplied with enough wood for naval construction. He also founded Coimbra University in 1290, and nationalized the Order of Templars converting them into the Portuguese Order of Christ. These developments created the setting which led Portugal to conduct her sea explorations.
    The greatest desire of all the noble Princes of Portugal, as in the rest of Europe, was to receive the rites of knighthood on the battlefield. King John I once planned a tournament with pennants and fanfare to be held in Lisbon (circa 1412). Here, his three sons, Dom Duarte (later King), Dom Pedro (the Traveler) and Dom Henrique (the Navigator,) were to be knighted after participating in mock warfare begun at the end of a pompous ceremony. But, the young Princes preferred to fight in real combat rather than take part in ‘festas” or accept invitations to socialize. To satisfy the wishes of his Sons, who insisted on proving themselves in battle, King John I proposed an alternative. He suggested the idea of a strong attack on Granada, the Moorish Kingdom bordering Algarve, which was a perpetual affront to the Christians.
    Click on photo for larger view.
    MAP IN THREE DIMENSIONS: King John I and his three sons (Duarte, Pedro, and Henry) are shown a full scale model of the city of Ceuta. The king had previously sent a ship to Ceuta to gather information . Upon returning, the spies built a complete model of Ceuta by using sand for the peninsula, beans for the buildings, and thread to represent the city walls.
    The King’s advisors, and his young and restless sons finally persuaded him to conquer instead, the Moorish City of Ceuta near Gibraltar, which was the principal haunt of pirates and a constant hindrance to commerce between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic.
    The preparations for the armada to Ceuta took three years to complete (1412-1415) There was a general mobilization. In spite of all the ongoing naval construction and military preparations the destination of the armada was kept a secret. On August 21, 1415, with a fleet of two hundred vessels and twenty thousand men, the Portuguese captured Ceuta, a City “rich and opulent, full of every luxury in precious markets”.
    Thus, the young Princes became Knights in Africa. The news of the capture of Ceuta caused a tremendous sensation throughout the Christian world. But more important, it gave Prince Henry the inspiration to create a School of Navigation aimed at obtaining directly from India, the ivory, spices, and riches he had seen in Ceuta.
    Upon returning from Ceuta, Prince Henry decided to collect methodically, all the valuable information concerning the mysteries of the Moslem world. For this, he “brought to Lisbon many Jews and Moors with the knowledge of the remote provinces, and the coasts and seas contiguous to them”. In the meantime, Infante Dom Pedro had traveled throughout Europe collecting nautical information and establishing diplomatic contacts which proved to be quite beneficial to the discoveries.
    Click on photo for larger view
    From 1415 until his death in 1460 — married to the idea of sea exploration — Prince Henry invited and attracted to his School of Navigation, situated first in Lisbon, and later in Sagres, the foremost scholars in mathematics, astronomy, cartography, and those that were experts regarding the compass, the astrolabe, water currents, and the winds. Pooling together and applying all this theoretical knowledge, the most important practical accomplishment of Prince Henry’s School of Navigation was the invention of the caravel. The acquisition of the caravel eliminated the problem of feeding the large crew in the galley-type ships and allowed navigators to make long voyages across the high seas. By reducing the size of the crew considerably, more food could be stored and longer voyages made Possible. The caravel was the first ship used by man that could tack against the wind.
    Prince Henry spent his entire fortune to maintain his school. He exhausted the coffers of the rich Order of Christ, but never diminish ed in his perseverance while urging his captains to explore further into the unknown seas. The Villa do Infante (Prince Henry’s Town) was specially built as the campus of the School of Navigation. The style of campus buildings is characteristic of Northern Portugal where Prince Henry was born and does not follow the Algarve architecture.
    With the return of Gil Eanes in 1434, after having passed the Cape of Bojador, or Fearsome Cape, the cold reasoning and scientific know edge of Prince Henry had finally triumphed. Gone were the superstitions and legends of 1)oilmg oceans and (lark sinister seas with monsters which haunted humanity for centuries.
    When Prince Henry died, his sailors had already reached the Gulf of Guinea near the Equator. By this time they had sailed beyond the site of the North Star. which had guided their ships in the North Atlantic, but they encountered the constellation of the Southern Cross where the South Star served to orient their course through the South Atlantic, around the Cape of Good Hope.
    Never before in the history of mankind had a civilization gone through so man large scale changes as during the period of the discoveries. Europe was brought into contact, for the first time, with strange civilizations, new races, and unknown islands. Huge Continents, vast oceans, and even constellations never seen before by the Europeans were discovered.
    Very few men had such an impact on the history of the world as Prince Henry. He had the foresight to form his Nautical School at Sagres and make it the scientific center of the world, thereby launching:... "Humanity’s first systematic work in the science of exploration"
    Continental Portugal During The Discoveries

    VIANA. (Viana do Castelo). A city involved in the explorations, and today a fishing center.
    BARCELOS. A noble city where the house of Manuel Pinheiro (1448) is today a National Monument. The Mirandês type of red bulls is bred in this region.
    BRAGA. The religious center before Portugal’s independence; birthplace of the Portuguese Order of Templars.
    GUIMARÃES. The first capital of Portugal.
    PORTO (OPORTO). The city of port wine, where Prince Henry was born. It gave its name to Portugal, and launched the first expedition to conquer Ceuta (1415).
    AVEIRO. A city greatly involved in cod fishing off Newfoundland even to this day.
    VISEU. Prince Henry was duke of Viseu.
    COIMBRA. The University City of Portugal. The University was founded in 1290 by King Dinis.
    PINHAL DE LEIRIA. Leiria pine forest, ordered sown by King Dinis to supply wood for naval construction.
    TOMAR. Permanent headquarters of the Portuguese Order of Christ, which furnished the funds and navigators for the discoveries.
    LISBOA (LISBON). The capital, became the Cape Kennedy of the Discoveries from which all the caravels departed for the unknown lands and seas.
    SETUBAL A commercial fishing city from the time of the discoveries to this (lay.
    ALGARVE Province where most of the preparations for the discoveries took place (luring Prince Henry’s lifetime. SAGRES Promontory of Sagres, where Prince Henry founded his nautical School and a town named after him. It is the southernmost part of Portugal.
    LAGOS The nearest port to the school of navigation.
    FARO. The capital of the province of Algarve.
    TAVIRA. The hometown of the Corte Real Family in Algarve.

    Click on map for larger view.
    This map shows the extension of Portuguese exploration at the time of Prince Henry's death in 1460

    Click on photo for larger view.
    MONUMENT TO THE “TRIPEIROS” (tripe-eaters). The people of Oporto volunteered to eat the entrails (guts) of cattle so that the war fleet of 1415 could take the supply of salt-preserved meat on their voyage to Ceuta. Since then the people of Oporto have been called the “gut-eaters”, or “tripeiros.”

    Click on photo:
    Prince Henry observing his plans with cartographers.

    Click on photo:
    The house in Oporto where Prince Henry was born on march 4, 1394

    pilgrim chapter 3

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    Chapter 4
    Many historians have continually misused the verb “to discover”. They imply that discovery is a one way street. It is not. Discovery involves a two way traffic.
    If a ship sets sail from Europe for the precise purpose of discovering unknown land and never returns, nothing would be discovered. Even if it arrives at new lands and the crew lives happily ever after but were unable to return to Europe to tell of their findings, actually, no discovery would have been accomplished.
    We have always been able to observe the moon and other planets, yet until recently, we were not able to discover them because we did not have the means to send an astronaut to explore them and report back to earth. For example, we have found archaeological evidence that Phoenicians, Romans, or Vikings have once lived in the Americas. However, there is no evidence of their return. Consequently, no discovery is considered to have taken place.
    To discover, i.e. — setting out and reporting back — represents a stage of civilization which was first initiated in a scientific manner by Prince Henry’s School of Navigation. No one should dare to speak about maritime discoveries without first studying thoroughly the water currents and the winds of the Atlantic.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Water currents of the Atlantic

    The Canary Current originates at the Promontory of Sagres where Prince Henry situated his school, and runs parallel to the African coast. It continues north of the Cape Verde Islands, and becomes the North Equatorial Current, or Trade Winds, crossing the Atlantic parallel to the equator and emptying into the Caribbean Sea. Then, the Gulf Stream, like a huge river, flows toward Europe and at the Azores branches out into the North Atlantic Current and the Canary Current. This dance of the Atlantic has not changed for thousands of years. All these currents create boundaries around the vast sea of seaweed, a sea without shores, forming the heart of the Atlantic. The Portuguese call it Sargasso Sea, a maritime name which is internationally known.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Sargasso Sea

    Click on photo for larger view
    Chart of the Gulf Steam, commissioned by Ben Franklin (1769

    Benjamin Franklin was the first since the Portuguese navigators to recognize the navigational importance of the Atlantic Currents. As a Deputy Postmaster of the colonies, Franklin took an interest in the currents which could increase the sailing speed of the mail ship to Europe. For this purpose, Franklin had the first chart of the Gulf Stream made. (1769)
    However, the first modern oceanographic studies of the currents and winds in the Atlantic were carried out by Prince Albert of Monaco (1885-1887). By throwing different sized bottles and barrels into various points in the North Atlantic, he proved that all these buoys made a circle surrounding the Sargasso Sea and that all of them were carried towards the American Continent by the Trade Winds or North Equatorial Drift. He also proved that none of the objects crossed the Equator into the South Atlantic. The findings of Prince Albert have been confirmed by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute of Massachusetts.
    The Gulf Stream has always brought strange objects to shores of the Azores and Portugal from the New World. Vegetable matter, pine trunks (Azores had no pine trees) and canoes served as evidence to the navigators that unknown lands lay further west.

    Click on photo for larger view
    One fundamental method of navigating under sail is to travel in an arc, or great circle.

    During the first period (1416-1434) of the discoveries, the navigators were reluctant to venture too far into the open seas, until in 1434, they passed the Cape of Bojador in Africa.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Sailing out from Lisbon towards the African coast was fairly easy because they followed the Canary current and winds. Returning to Portugal, they were forced to make a broad swing at considerable distance away from the coast. On each voyage they sailed in ever-widening arms westward into the open Atlantic taking advantage of the Canary winds, now at their right (first part of the navigational arc) and then joined the Gulf Stream to Continental Portugal (second half of the navigational arc). With this technique, the navigators continued to make a series of wider navigational arcs, establishing the now conventional sailing routes:
    (1) Arc of Mina (present day Ghana)
    (2) Arc of Azores
    (3) Arc of Sargasso Sea.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Lateen Sailboat passing by the Tower of Belém in Lisbon Harbor

    Click on photo for larger view
    Sailing against the wind became easier after the Portuguese began using Lateen sailing their caravels. Navigating in a zigzag course, the Portuguese could sail a shorter distance to windward.

    In 1537, Pedro Nunes, a Portuguese navigator and mathematician, printed the first details of navigational arcs, or great-circle routes.
    The discovery of the Sargasso Sea and the western-most islands of the Azores was made on return voyages from Africa.
    Soon the Portuguese pilots learned that navigating the high seas was much easier than sailing along the coast where the water currents and the winds did not follow a fixed pattern. The North Atlantic became their University of Navigation. The Madeira, Azorean, Canary, and Cape Verde Islands became the “interplanetary stations”, the stepping stones in the discovery of the unknown continents.
    The knowledge acquired by the Portuguese during the first open-sea voyages in the North Atlantic gave them the key with which, from discovery to discovery, with method and perseverance, they could also open the doors of the South Atlantic Ocean.
    It was Bartolomeu Dias, the master of the caravel, who passed the Cape of Good Hope in 1487 because he realized that he could not navigate against the Guinea Current. Instead he decided to take a southwesterly course (Brazilian Current) , out into the open sea, in search of a more favorable wind. His voyage was a mirror image in the South Atlantic of the Sargasso Navigational Route in the North Atlantic.
    Sailing in an arc had already solved many problems in the North Atlantic (luring Prince Henry’s lifetime. On his return, Bartolomeu Dias followed the Benguela Current, parallel to the African Coast, and sailed towards the equator, continuing along the conventional Sargasso - Azores Route to Lisbon. His great achievement was in being first to complete the gigantic figure-8 water route embracing both Atlantics.
    Even today, many scholars who know nothing about nautical science are amazed to learn that Vasco da Gama in his first voyage to India followed the Brazilian Current. This current, which comprised the southwest arc of the figure-8 water route, lead him to the Indian Ocean.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Vasco da Gama's route on his 1st voyage to India. He followed the Brazilian coast to reach the cape of Good Hope

    The Corte Real family of navigators were familiar with the technique of sailing in an arc long before Bartolomeu Dias or Vasco da Gama. Since 1 472, when John Vaz Corte Real returned from discovering New Foundland, for which he was rewarded with the governorship of half of the Island of Terceira, the Corte Real family spent all its energies pursuing the Northwest passage to India.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Arc Of Newfoundland by the Corte Reais

    Thus, from the Island of Terceira, the Portuguese navigators reached North America by sailing in a Northwest arc which cut across the Gulf Stream. They made their return voyage by joining the main current of the Gulf Stream leading them directly to the Azores. The more knowledge we have of the oceanic forces — water currents and winds — which once moved the caravels across the Atlantic — the more convinced we become that the discovery of the water route to America — North and South — was, indeed, forced upon the Portuguese navigators and therefore the easiest of all the discoveries.
    It is noteworthy that while Europe was involved in political and religious wars — Portugal --for more than 70 ears (141 5-1492)-- was pursuing the discovery of the Atlantic alone.
    When the other nations in Europe became aware of the importance of the Portuguese achievements, they attempted to compete in the race for discoveries but were never able to surpass the experience, nor offset the advantage that the Portuguese sailors had acquired during their many years of maritime exploration. By the time that the Portuguese passed the Cape of Good Hope in 1487, they had already gained such a momentum of knowledge of navigating the high seas, that no other nation was able to reach their level of scientific navigation.
    Portugal had pilots not only for her own needs, but enough to give away. In order to carry out their maritime enterprises, other nations were forced to recruit among the experienced Portuguese masters (e.g. Estevão Gomes, Fernão de Magalhães (Magellan) and João Cabrilho. Suffice to say that all five Spanish ships in Magellan’s fleet were piloted by Portuguese navigators.
    When we consider that almost two-thirds of the world was discovered by the Portuguese, we must begin the study of any disputed discovery with the alerting diagnosis: “It was discovered by the Portuguese until proven other wise.
    Over the centuries, men have always migrated from one continent to the other, carried off by the oceanic water currents and the winds, but never from the motive of discovery.
    Thor Heyerdahl, author of “Kon-Tiki”, has recently (1970) completed a voyage across the Atlantic on a boat made of papyrus. Having set out from Morocco and finally reaching the West Indies, Heyerdahl proved it possible that the Egyptians could have made the same crossing 5,000 years ago, which would explain the similarity between the Maya and Egyptian cultures. But he did not prove that ancient mariners could have returned to report their discovery.
    Evidence of voyages by the Vikings under similar circumstances has been found in the traces of villages uncovered in Newfoundland and Greenland. Further evidence has been found in Central and South America that other Europeans (Carthaginians, Romans, Phoenicians) made similar Atlantic crossings. We know today that all these Atlantic crossings had to occur at one time or another be cause of the prevailing forces of the Greenland current in the North, and the Canary current and Trade Winds in the South. We know also that any ship sailing past the Promontory of Sagres runs the risk of being sucked into the Canary Current and forced to cross the Atlantic to Central America. Of the hundreds of Portuguese caravels that sailed along the African coast, many were swept along with the Canary Currents and Trade Winds and forced to Central America.
    But the difference between all other Euro who crossed the Atlantic and the Portuguese is that the former were never able to return. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to develop the caravel which enabled them to return home. A voyage without a round trip cannot be called a true discovery. The Portuguese were the first to reach this level of nautical science in transatlantic sailing, and yet historians continue to praise those who have accomplished much less, to the exclusion of the Portuguese who discovered nearly two-thirds of the world.

    1415—Ceuta conquered by Portugal during the reign of
    Joao I.

    1418—João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira discovered Porto Santo island, in the Madeira group.
    1419—The same sailors and Bartolomeu Perestrelo discovered the island of Madeira, which at once began to be colonized.
    1427—Diogo de Silves discovered part of the archipelago of the Azores, which was colonized in 1431 by Gonçalo Velho Cabral.
    1434—Gil Eanes sailed round Cape Bojador, thus destroying the legends of the ‘Dark Sea’.
    1435—Gil Eanes and Afonso Gonçalves Baldaia discovered Angra dos Ruivos (Garnet Bay) and the latter reached the Gold River (Rio de Ouro).
    144l—Nuno Tristão reached Cape White. 1443—Nuno Tristão penetrated into the Arguim Gulf.
    1444--Dias reached Cabo Verde.
    1445-Alvaro Fernandes sailed beyond Cabo Verde and reached Cabo dos Mastros (Red Cape)
    I446— Alvaro Fernandes reached the northern Part of Portuguese Guinea 1460—Diogo Gomes and António Noli covered sonic islands in the Cabo Verde archipelago.
    1461 —Diogo Afonso discovered the western islands of the Cabo Verde group.
    1471 João de Santarém and Pedro Escobar crossed the Equator. So the southern hemisphere was discovered and the sailors began to be guided by a new constellation, the Southern Cross. The discovery of the islands of São Tome and Principe is also attributed to these same sailors. 1472—Corte Real and Alvaro Martins Homem reached the Land of Cod, now called Newfoundland.
    l482—Diogo Cão reached the estuary of the Zaire (Congo) and placed a landmark there.
    1487—Afonso de Paiva and Pero da Covilhã traveled overland from Lisbon in search of the Kingdom of Prester John. (Ethiopia)
    1488—Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope and entered the Indian Ocean, thus effecting what is perhaps the greatest single feat of navigation of the Portuguese sailors.
    1492—Christopher Columbus, who had studied the art of navigation in Portugal, rediscovered the American continent.
    1494—The Treaty of Tordesilles, which divided the discovered and still un-discovered world into two zones, one for Portugal and the other for Spain.
    1495—Voyage of Joao Fernandes, the Farmer, and Pedro Barcelos to Greenland. During their voyage they discovered the land to which they gave the name of Labrador (lavrador, farmer)
    1498—The feat of Bartolomeu Dias was completed when Vasco da Gama led the first Beet sent by the Portuguese king to India. His arrival at Calicut is one of the great turning-points of History.
    1500—Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil.
    1 500—Gaspar Corte Real made his first voyage to Newfoundland, formerly known as Terras de Corte Real.
    1502—Miguel Corte Real set out for New England in search of his brother, Gaspar. João da Nova discovered Ascension Island. Fernão de Noronha discovered the island which still bears his name.
    1503—On his return from the East, Estevão da Gama discovered Santa Helena island.
    1506—Tristão da Cunha discovered the island that bears his name. Portuguese sailors landed on Madagascar.
    1509—The Gulf of Bengal crossed by Diogo Lopes Sequeira. On the crossing he also reached Malacca, later occupied by Afonso de Albuquerque, as well as Goa (1510).
    151 2—António de Abreu discovered Timor island.
    1 513—The first trading ship to touch the coasts of China, under Jorge Álvares.
    1518—Ceylon occupied.
    1519-1522—Voyage round the world by the Portuguese sailor Fernão de Magalhães, then in the service of Spain. During the voyage the passage linking the Atlantic to the Pacific was discovered (Strait of Magellan).
    1522—The discovery of Australia has been attributed to Cristovão de Mendonça (1522) and to Gomes de Sequeira (1525).
    1526—Discovery of New Guinea.
    1541—Fernão Mendes Pinto, Diogo Zeimoto and Cristovão Borralho reached Japan.
    1542—The coast of California explored by João Rodrigues Cabrilho.
    1557—Macau (Macao) given to Portugal by the Emperor of China as a reward for services rendered against the pirates who infested the China Sea.
    1595—Pedro Fernandes Queiroz, then in the service of Spain, discovered the Marquise Islands.
    1660—Voyage of David Melgueiro from Japan to Portugal via the Arctic Ocean. 24

    Click on photo for larger view
    Prince Henry leading his navigators forward in the monument of the discoveries at Lisbon Harbor.

    pilgrim chapter 4

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    Chapter 5
    (1) 1474, April 2 — Charter giving half the Island of Terceira (Angra) to João Vaz Corte Real.
    (2) 1483, May 4 — Donation Charter by Dom Manuel (later King Manuel) on conferring on João Vaz Corte Real the governorship of Angra and St. George.
    (3) 1500, May 12 — Royal charter granted by King Manuel 1, giving Gaspar Corte Real the islands and continents that he will discover.
    (4) 1501, January 27 — Royal charter give to João Martins, confirming Gaspar Corte Real’s voyage of 1500.
    (5) 1501, October 6 — Letter of Miguel Corte Real to Cristovão Lopes ordering supplies of wine and meat for his voyage.
    (6) 1501, October 7 — Receipt by Miguel Corte Real for the wine and the meat
    (7) 1501, October 17 — Espionage letter of Alberto Cantino to Duck de Ferrara.
    (8) 1501, October 18 — Espionage letter of Pietro Pasqualigo from Lisbon to the Doge of Venice.
    (9) 1501, October 19 — Espionage letter of Pietro Pasqualigo from Lisbon addressed to his brothers.
    (10) 1502, January 15 — Royal charter given to Miguel Corte Real granting him per mission to search for his brother, Gaspar Corte Real.

    Click on photo for larger view
    (Il) 1501 — The Cantino Planisphere with Greenland, Newfoundland labeled as “The Land of the King of Portugal”.
    (12) 1502 — Pedro Reinel map describing Newfoundland with several Portuguese names.
    (13) 1519 — World map by Jorge Reinel showing Newfoundland and Labrador as territories of the King of Portugal.
    (14) 1522 — Map of Reinel showing land of the Corte Reais.

    The Azores are a group of nine islands in the North Atlantic. Click on photo for larger view.
    PORTUGAL lies 800 miles to the east (from Santa Maria Island).
    NEWFOUNDLAND lies about 1000 miles to the northwest (from Corvo Island).
    SANTA MARIA is on the same latitude as the Promontory of Sagres — 37 degrees
    TERCEIRA ISLAND is on the same latitude as Lisbon — 38' 40’.
    The Island of Terceira, which means ‘the third”, was so called because it was the third Azorean island to be discovered in 1449. Terceira was also called the island of “Jesus Christ” in honor of the patrons of the Order of Christ.
    The genealogy of the Corte Real family dates from 1 367, beginning in the city of Tavira, in the Southern Province of Algarve.
    It is believed that the name “Corte Real” was originally a nickname given because these nobles were always to be found in the “Corte Real” or “Royal Court”; another version relates that the surname was given as a title because the family had distinguished itself in many royal services. The Cone Real family was always very close to the Royal House and there fore took an active part in the conquests in North Africa as well as in the progress of the discoveries.
    Click on photo for larger view. Gaspar Corte Real's receipt
    The earliest documents connecting the Corte Real family with the Azores Islands are the charters of February 17, 1474 and April 2. 1474 granting João Vaz Corte Real, father of Gaspar and Miguel, the governship of the Island of Terceira.
    The first charter clearly in dictates the division of the island of Terceira between João Vaz Corte Real and Alvaro Martins: and thus the island divided, I ordered João Vaz Corte Real to choose first, and he chose the part of Angra, and left the part of Praia for (Alvaro Martins) . .“ The second charter confirms the division of the island, and the rights of João Vaz Corte Real to administer justice and maintain the general welfare of the people.
    Infanta Dona Beatriz, acting on behalf of the grandmaster of the Order of Christ, divided the governorship of the Island of Terceira into two countries: one comprised the Southeastern part known as Angra, chosen first by João Vaz Cone Real, who was to be favored by the division; and the other half, known as Praia, was accepted by Alvaro Martins Homem.
    J oão Vaz Corte Real wanted to establish himself in the Island of Terceira because he knew the favorable geographical position of that island in the North Atlantic. The navigators accurately calculated that Terceira was situated on the same latitude as Lisbon — 38° 40’.
    João Vaz Corte Real had landed at Terceira in 1472 after he returned from the land of Bacalhaus (Codfish) or Newfoundland. Corte Real wished to have a navigational outpost and also more income to further finance the search for the Northwest Passage. Indeed the island of Terceira became the center from which many voyages radiated out into the Atlantic for the purpose of exploring the Americas.
    On May 4, 1483, Dom Manuel, grandmaster of the Order of Christ and later King of Portugal confirmed the Chart of 1472 given to João Vaz Cone Real for “the many services he performed for Prince Henry”, and in addition gave him the Island of St. George.
    For almost 25 years João Vaz Corte Real continued to explore the North Atlantic, at the same time sharing his experience of navigation with his sons. When he died, in 1496, he left to his sons the governorship of Terceira and St. George, and also the fruits and legacy of his explorations.
    Evidence that Gaspar Corte Real left Lisbon for North America can be seen on the Royal Charter of May 12, 1500, given by King Manuel I. This document today lies in the Torre do Tombo, or Portuguese National Archives. It states that “the ships and crew were obtained at the expense of Gaspar Corte Real who wanted to continue to look for, discover, and explore more islands and continents.”
    We know that Gaspar Corte Real was successful in his voyages because King Manuel I (January 27, 1501) gave a letter of promotion to João Martins for his outstanding participation as a crew member in Gaspar Corte Real’s voyage to Newfoundland.
    “King Manuel I: Be it known, that Gaspar Corte Real, knight of the Royal House, who has obtained ships and crew at his own expense, is granted permission to look for, discover, and explore more islands and continents, because he wants to continue now, and do all he can to execute his plan. . .“
    Click on photo for larger view. Gaspar Corte Real.
    The King’s letter, or Royal chart, is dated January 15, 1502, and is in the Torre do Tombo in Lisbon. As a result of the official policy of secrecy, Gaspar Corte Real did not leave any document describing his voyage to North America. In spite of this, we have the letters of the Italian spies, Alberto Cantino and Pedro Pasqualigo, written in Lisbon (October, 1501) describing in detail the voyage, the land, and the people encountered by Gaspar Corte Real. These letters are self-evident and are here presented in their entirety.
    Letter from Alberto Cantino to Hercules d’Este, Duke of Ferrara.
    Lisbon, October 17, 1501.

    (Description of the course and length of the voyage.)
    It is now nine months since this most serene king rent to the northern part two well-armed ships, to ascertain if it would be possible to discover land or some islands in that direction. On the 11th of the present month one of them returned, and has brought people and tidings, which it appeared to me ought not to pass without the knowledge of your Excellence. Therefore all that was related by the captain to the king, I being present, is here clearly written down. First they stated that,, after leaving Lisbon, they always went on that course and towards that pole for four months, nor during all that time did they see anything.
    (Description of the icebergs.)
    In the fifth month, still wishing to push on, they say that they came upon enormous masses of congealed snow floating upon the sea, and moving under the influence of the waves. Owing to the heat of the sun, sweet and clear water is melted on their summits, and, descending by small channels formed by the water itself, it cats away at the base where it falls. The ships now being in want of water, the boats were sent in, and that way as much was taken as was needed. Fearing to remain in that place by reason of their danger, they intended to turn back; but they consulted what was their best course, and, aided by hope, they resolved to go forward for some days. Proceeding on the voyage, they arrived at the frozen sea on the second day, and were forced to abandon their intention. So they began to turn towards the north-west and west, and were three months continuing in that direction, always with fine weather.
    (Description of the continent — Canada.)
    On the first day of the fourth month they came in sight, between these two courses, of a very great country, which they approached with the greatest joy. Many large rivers of fresh water flowed through this region into the sea, one of them sending its waters for perhaps a league from the land. When they landed they found delicious fruits of various kinds, trees and pines of marvelous height and girth, suited for masts of the largest ships that float in the sea. Here there is no corn of any kind, but the men of that country say that they only live by fishing and hunting animals, in which the land abounds.
    There are very large stags with long hair, the skins of which they use for clothes, and make houses and boats of them. There are also wolves, foxes, tigers, and sables. They affirm that the peregrine falcons are so numerous that it appears to me to be a miracle, like those in our con n try. I have seen them, and they are very fine. (Description of North American Indian). They kidnapped nearly 50 of the men and women of that land by force, and brought them to the king. I have seen them, touched and examined them. Be ginning with their size, I say they are bigger than our people, with well-formed limbs to correspond. The hair of the men is long, as we wear it, letting it hang in plaited rings. They have the face marked with great signs, like those of the Indians. Their eyes incline to green, and when they look from them it gives a great fierceness to the whole countenance.
    Their speech cannot be understood, but, however, there is no sharpness in it, and it is altogether human. Their behavior and gestures are very gentle; they laugh a good deal, and show great delight. So much for the men. The woman has small breasts and a very beautiful body. She has a very gentle countenance, and its color may he said to be more white than any other tint, but that of the men is much darker. In fine, except for the fierce look of the men, they are very like ourselves. They are naked except for a small covering made of deer-skin. They have no arms nor iron, but for working or fashioning any thing, they use a very hard and sharp stone, with which there is nothing so hard as that they cannot cut it.
    (Description of the distance from
    Newfoundland to Lisbon and purpose of espionage.)
    This ship has come from thence to this place in a month, and they say that the distance is 2,800 miles. The other consort has decided to go so far along the coast, with the desire of ascertaining whether it is an island or mainland. The king awaits the arrival of the others with much anxiety, and as soon as they come, bringing news worthy of your Excellency’s attention, I will at once send the particulars.
    FIRST LETTER-- Lisbon, October 18th, 1501.
    (Description of the voyage)
    On. the ninth of the present month there arrive here one of tile two caravels which the Majesty of ti said king sent to discover towards the north-western part in tile past year. It has brought seven native men, women, and children, from that discovered land The country is at a distance of 1,800 miles to north and west.
    (Description Of The North American Indian)
    These men, in their aspect, figure, and stature, are like gypsies. They are marked on the face in several places, some with more, others with fewer lines. They are dressed in skins of different animals, but chiefly of otters. Their speech is entirely different from any that has ever been heard in this kingdom, and no one understands it. Their limbs are exceedingly well made, and they have very gentle countenances; but their habits are filthy, like wild men.
    (Description of North American Mainland.)
    The people of the caravel believe that the above land is the mainland, and that it joins to the other land that, in the previous year, was discovered to the north by another caravel of his Majesty. But they were not able to reach it, because the sea was frozen over with vast quantities of snow like mountains on the land. They also think that it is joined to the Antilles, which were discovered by the Sovereigns of Spain, and with the land of Papaga, lately discovered by the ship of this king when on its way to Calicut. This belief is caused, in the first place, because, having coasted along the said land for a distance of 600 miles and more, they did not come to any termination; also because they report the discovery of many very large rivers which fall into the sea. The other caravel (Capitana) is expected from day to day, from which the quality and condition of the said land will be clearly understood, as she has gone further along that coast, to discover as much as possible.
    (Purpose of Espionage)
    This royal Majesty has derived great satisfaction from the news, because he considers that this land will be very useful to his affairs in many respects, but principally because, being very near to this kingdom, it will be easy, in a short time, to obtain abundant supplies of wood for making the masts and yards of ships, and slaves fit for any work; for they say that the land is very populous, and also full of pines and other excellent timber. This news has given such pleasure to his Majesty that he has issued orders for ships to go there, and also for the increase of his Indian fleet, to conquer it as quickly as it was discovered; for there it appears that God is with his Majesty and his works, and favors his designs.

    (Description of the voyage)
    Lisbon, October 19th, 1501:On the 8th of the present month there arrived here one of the two caravels which this most serene king sent on a voyage of discovery towards the north in the past year, under Captain Gaspar Corte Real (sic). It reports having discovered land two thousand miles from here towards the north-west and west, which was before not known to any one.
    They discovered from 600 to 700 miles of coastline, without finding the end of it. They, therefore, believe that it is mainland, which is continuous with another land discovered in the previous year to the north. The caravel could not reach the end of the land because the sea was frozen over with a vast quantity of snow. This is also believed because of the multitude of very large rivers they discovered there, for certainly there would not he so many nor such large ones on an island. They say that this land is very populous, and the houses of the inhabitants are of wood, very large, and covered outside with skins of fish.
    (Description of North American Indian)
    They have brought here seven of the natives; men, women, children, and fifty others will come in the other caravel, which is expected from hour to hour. These are like gypsies in figure, stature, and appearance, and are dressed in the skins of divers animals, but chiefly of otters. In summer they turn the skin inside, and in winter the 0ther way. These skins are not sewn together in any way, nor tanned, but are thrown over the shoulders and arms just as they are taken from the animals. The loins are fastened with some cord made of the very strong sinews of a fish. Although they appear to be wild men, yet they are modest and gentle, and their arms, shoulders, and legs so well proportioned that I can not describe them. Their faces are marked in the fashion of the Indians, some with six, some with eight, some with no lines. They talk, but they are not understood by anyone. I believe they have been addressed in every possible language. They have no iron in their country, but make knives of some stones, and in like manner the points for their arrows.
    (Purpose of espionage)
    There is a very great abundance of salmon, her rings, cod, and similar fish. There is also plenty of wood, and, above all, fine trees for making masts and yards of ships. This most serene king hopes to derive very great profit from the new land, both from the wood for ships, of which they have need, and from the men, who will be excellent for labor, and the best slaves that have hitherto been obtained. It appears to me a matter worthy of being brought to your notice, and if I shall learn more on the arrival of the caravel (Capitana), I will let you know.
    Miguel Corte Real’s letter to Christovão Lopes
    for wine and meat for his voyage:
    Click on photo for larger view.

    Order & receipt for provisions by Miguel Corte Real with his signature.

    October 6, 1501, by King’s orders. “Senhor Christovão Lopes: When I prepared (for voyage) in Lisbon, I took provisions for three months. Enough for fifty men and then the King ordered me to take thirty more men, but I could not take any more provisions because of lack of space in the ship. I ask you to give me two casks of wine and an ox or about four hundred and forty pounds of meat; this request of mine has the approval of the King.”
    And he pays for the provisions by signing a receipt one day later.
    “I, Miguel Corte Real swear that I received from Christovão Lopes, King’s esquire, two casks of wine and four hundred and forty pounds of meat for eighty men for whom I was in need of provisions”. Signed Miguel Corte Real
    We have seen the documents in which Miguel Corte Real reveals his readiness (ships, 80 men, and provisions) for the voyage in search of his brother Gaspar. We should examine now the King’s letter giving Miguel half of the new found lands, or all, if his brother Gaspar should die.
    KING’S LETTER TO MIGUEL CORTE REAL — 1502 January 15, 1502.
    “Click on photo for larger view.
    Letter of King Manuel to Miguel Corte real, 1502

    King Manuel I: Be it known that Miguel Corte Real, knight and Chief Porter of the Royal House, informed us that his brother Gaspar Corte Real had left this city (Lisbon) with. three ships to discover new land, part of which he had previously found, and that after five months upon their departure two ships had returned home, and that so far he (Gaspar) had failed to appear, he (Miguel) would like to go and look for him, and because said Miguel Corte Real had spent much on ships of Gaspar’s first and second voyage. * * *
    * * * and in case he does not find his brother (Gaspar), I declare that all the continents, or islands that he discovers, plus those found by Gaspar, be all granted to him (Miguel) with all the rights * * *

    • (1) “Discovery of the World” by António Galvão 1563.
    • (2) “Chronicle of King Manuel Damião Góes,” 1566.
    • (3) “Saiidades da Terra” by Dr. Gaspar Fructuoso, 1580-92.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Front cover design--imprinting carving--Damião de Góis book of discoveries (1567)

    António Galvão in his famous book “Tratado dos Descobrimentos antigos e modernos (Treatise of the discoveries, old and new) describes the Corte Reais’ voyages this way: There are two other accounts we should consider before concluding the list of secondary sources for the Corte Reais’ voyages:

    • a) An extract of the Chronicle of King Dom Manuel. By Damião de Góes (Lisbon, 1566).
    • b) “Saudades da Terra”. (1580). By Gaspar Fructuoso

    - - And returning (1474) João Vaz Corte Real from the discovery of Newfound, Land of Codfish, which he did by order of the King, he received the Governship of Angra in the island of Terceira and the island of St. George.”

    • (I) World Map of Diogo Ribeiro of 1529
    • (2) Map of João Freire, 1546.
    • (3) World Map of Lopo Homem, 1554.
    • (4) 1568 — Map of Fernão Vaz Dourado
    • (5) 1571 — Map of Fernão Vaz Dourado.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Detail of planisphere of Diogo Ribeiro, 1529, showing Labrador, Land of Corte Reais and land of Estevão Gomes

    Click on photo for larger view
    Detail of João Freire's chart, 1564 showing Newfoundland's coast with Portuguese names

    Click on photo for larger view
    Chart of Lopo Homem, c. 1550, showing the Canadian coast with Portuguese place names.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Chart of Fernão Vaz Dourado, 1568 with Portuguese place names along the coast from Labrador to Rhode Island.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Chart of Fernão Vaz Dourado, 1571. Terra dos Corte Reais or Land of Corte Reais. Includes the north part of New England

    pilgrim chapter 5

  7. #7
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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    Chapter 6

    Click on photo for larger view.

    (1) CASA DA INDIA or House of India -- on the right-- where all secret discovery documents were kept. It was destroyed by the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. The house on the left, with four towers was the Palace of the Corte Reais.

    Click on photo for larger view.

    (2) National archives building of Portugal--Torre do Tombo--where the primary and secondary documents of the Corte Reais voyages are kept.




    Click on photo for larger view.
    First period. High cross type

    During the first period of the discoveries (1415-1460) Portuguese navigators used as a landmarker, a wooden cross — (high type-cross) — characterized by a high stem. By implanting these high stem wooden crosses, the navigators laid claim to new lands for Portugal. This procedure was also of an essentially devout character and in accordance with the first motive of the explorations: The spreading of the Christian faith.

    Click on photo for larger view.

    Second period: Engraving of the cross and other Portuguese symbols on rocks. (Yellala rock near the Congo River.)

    During the second period of the discoveries the navigators marked the new possessions for Portugal by inscribing on rocks along the shores the following four elements:

    • (I) The Portuguese Royal Coat of Arms;
    • (2) The Portuguese Cross of Order of Christ;
    • (3) The Name of the Captain of the Expedition;
    • (4) The Date of the Discovery. Dighton Rock belongs to this period.

    Click on photo for larger view.
    Third period: Stone pillars called Padrões with all the symbols of the discoveries.


    In the third period of the discoveries, the navigators took with them stone pillars called Padrões, about 10-12 feet high, with the following four characteristics:

    • (1) The Portuguese Royal Coat of Arms; surmounted by
    • (2) the Portuguese Cross of Order of Christ (made either of stone or iron) ;
    • (3) The Name of the Captains
    • (4) The Date of Discovery. The navigators left Padrões along the Coast of Africa, South America, and Asia.

    Prince Henry and later the Kings of Portugal gave instructions to the navigators to bring back to them some material evidence that they had found new lands. Thus, different leaves, fruits, specimens of wood, birds, animals, and even natives were brought to Portugal.

    Before we analyze the inscriptions on Dighton Rock (or any other Portuguese land marker) we should review schematically the history of:

    • (1) The Portuguese Royal Coat of Arms;
    • (2) The Cross of Order of Christ;
    • (3) Type of lettering and numerals used during the Portuguese Discoveries.

    The history of the Portuguese flag is one and the same with that of the Portuguese Royal Coat of Arms which is inscribed in the center of the flag. The Portuguese flag reveals in a clear and unique form the entire history of the country. It is the national anthem of Portugal in color.


    Click on photo for larger view
    First flag of Portugal

    When Portugal became independent in 1139 the first King, Afonso Henriques, adopted as the first flag: a single blue cross on a white background.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Second flag of Portugal with the 5 Quinas

    The next major change in the Portuguese flag occurred after King Afonso Henriques astonishingly defeated five Moorish Kings at the Battle of Ourique (1139). To commemorate such a great victory, the Portuguese Mon arch decided to divide the original blue cross into five escutcheons, each one signifying a defeated Moorish King. Within each escutcheon was placed five bezants representing the five wounds of Christ.
    The Portuguese flag is also called Bandeira das Quinas or Flag of Quinas. If one counts all the bezants vertically and horizontally (counting the one in the center twice) a total of thirty bezants (or coins) would be found, representing the thirty pieces of silver for which Christ was sold.
    The great Portuguese poet, Luis de Camões describes the flag in this way: (1572)
    Canto III — Estância LIII
    And now he charged on his virgin shield
    what still assures this well-won Victory.
    five noble in escutcheons azure-hued,
    signing the Moorish Five his sword subdued.
    Canto III — Estância LIV
    “He paints with bezants five each escutcheon,
    the thirty silvers wherewith God was sold,
    and various tinclures make His mem’ory known,
    whose grace and favor did his cause uphold.
    Painted on every cinque is shown;
    and, that the thirty may be fully told,
    count eth for two the one that central lies
    of the five azures painted crossy-wise.

    The Portuguese Coat of Arms, called Escudo, which means shield, evolved from the shield which, with the sword and spear, constituted the soldier’s armor. Consequently, the form of the national Coat of Arms always followed the changes in the shape of the shield. The original style of the shield which terminated in a point, therefore V-shaped, was the form of the first Portuguese Coat of Arms. Later the V-shaped shield was used interchange ably with a U-shaped shield (with round base)

    Click on photo for larger view
    Escutcheon + Bezants = Quina

    One may also find a shortened version of the Portuguese Coat of Arms: A V-shaped shield, within another, with one bezante in the center.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Abbreviated Quina

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    In 1249 King Afonso III conquered the Moorish Province of Algarve, establishing once and for all the boundaries of Continental Portugal as we know it today. To commemorate that conquest, the King added to the national flag nine castles lined in a U-form and representing the same number of fortresses captured from the Moors.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Third flag of Portugal with the addition of Castles.

    Click on photo for larger view.
    Fourth flag of Portugal with U shaped coat of arms.

    Click on photo for larger view.

    Portuguese coat of arms: "V" and "U" shaped are used in these shortened forms in coins, navigational charts and landmarkers.

    It was during the time of King John I that the U-shaped Coat of Arms began to be used more frequently than the V-shaped form, although they continued to be used interchange ably. Later, King John II reduced the number of the castles to seven, and we find that same number in the flag today.

    Click on photo for larger view.
    Fifth flag of Portugal: Addition of Armillary sphere

    After Magellan circumnavigated the globe in 1522, thereby proving the earth to be round, the armillary sphere was added to the Portuguese flag to commemorate this accomplishment.
    Since the period of the discoveries, the only other major change that the Portuguese flag has undergone, occurred at the founding of the Portuguese Republic in 1910. Red and green background was added to surround the center of the flag, which had remained the same since the discoveries.

    Click on photo for larger view
    Sixth and present flag of Portugal

    The red represents the fiery incandescent sun as it rose and sank over bows and sterns of brave Portuguese sailing ships whose empire, for the first time in the history of the world, was the entire globe. (Popular belief ascribes the meaning of red to the blood of the Portuguese saints and heroes) . The green represents the color of the high seas, which the Portuguese were the first Europeans to navigate. (Popular belief also ascribes to green the color of the valleys of Portugal)

    The Cross of the Order of Christ, more than any other symbol, characterizes the great period of the discoveries when it was displayed on the sails of the caravels and used as a religious decoration by the Knights of the Order of Christ. It became a national emblem which appeared and still appears on the official documents, coins, charts, landmarkers. and monuments of Portugal and her territories.

    Click on photo for larger view.
    The mature form of the cross of the order of Christ.

    The Cross of Order of Christ is unique because of the shape of its arms. Its extremities terminate in an isosceles trapezoid, with the larger base facing out, showing acute angles of 45 degrees (plus or minus) at the branches.
    Among a variety of more than 300 crosses used as symbols of different religious sects, or as honorary decorations by various nations, the Portuguese Cross of Order of Christ is the only one in the world that has its extremities at 45 degree angles.
    Both the Britannica and Americana Encyclopedias give the origin, form, and history of 79 different crosses, but make no reference whatsoever to the Portuguese Cross of the Order of Christ, despite the fact that it is considered the highest and most exclusive of all the six Pontifical decorations.
    The papal decoration of the Order of Christ is of Portuguese origin. The Pope chose the Cross of Order of Christ to be the highest ranking decoration that he could award, inspired by the fact that the Portuguese navigators caused this Cross to be universally recognized in all the islands and continents they explored. Pope Paul VI, in 1966, restricted awards of this decoration to heads of state who professed the Catholic religion.

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    The Order of Christ, with headquarters in Tomar, a city in the center of Portugal, supplied large sums of money to build the first naus and caravels, and contributed from its ranks the first courageous navigators.

    Click on photo for larger view.
    The exterior of the Charola Tower of the Convent of Tomar.

    Click on photo for larger view.
    The Chapter House window of the Convent of Tomar with the cross of the order of Christ.

    In 1417 Prince Henry the Navigator, at the age of 23, became the Administrator (and exerted the functions of Grand Master) of the Order of Christ. He began immediately to de vote all the resources of this military-religious order to realize his twofold dream of exploring the unknown Atlantic and finding the water route to India.
    The Order of Christ evolved from the Order of Templars. This order was so called because of its headquarters at Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem. It was founded during the Crusades in 111 8, as a religious-military order to protect the pilgrims on their way to the Holy Land. The Popes granted special indulgences to those who participated in the Eastern Crusades. Because the Arabs were in possession of the Iberian Peninsula, the Pope granted the same indulgences to those who joined the Western Crusades.

    The Templars were the first crusaders to appear in the Iberian Peninsula. Even before the independence of Portugal, the knights had established themselves in Braga, in 1126. They played a decisive role in the independence of Portugal and also in the conquest of a large portion of territory from the Moors.
    It was in 1160 that the Templars began constructing the Castle of Tomar, inspired by the style of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, which was characterized by a round, eight-arch main altar.
    The Portuguese Templars also adopted as their Cross one with extremities terminated by four convex arcs radiating from the center of the circle. This type of Cross is typical in the original construction of the Convent of Tomar.

    (18) Click on photo for larger view.
    From Templar Cross to the first Cross of the Order of Christ

    Click on photo for larger view.
    Cross Of Portuguese Templars, 1160

    Click on photo for larger view.
    Cross of the order of Christ, 1357 with straight base extremity

    After the Crusades, the Order of Templars had become very rich and powerful, posing a political threat to certain European sovereigns, especially the King of France. Philip the Fair, obtained by intrigue, the bull "Regrans in Coelis"(1308) from Clement V abolishing the Order of Templars.
    When news of the Papal decision arrived in Portugal, it was not well received. The Portuguese Templars had been the back bone of the fight for national independence and were exemplary in their morals.
    King Dinis, with shrewd maneuvering, convinced the Pope that a new military order was needed for Castro Marim, in the southeast frontier of Portugal, because the Moors from Granada posed a constant threat to the Christians. Pope John XXII therefore gave the Portuguese king permission to form the new Order of Christ by issuing the bull “Ad ea Exquibus” On March 14, 1319.
    The newly formed Order of Christ actually was comprised of the former members and property of the Order of Templars Further more, this new order paid homage and money tribute to the king rather than to the Pope as the Templars were obliged. To justify their existence, the Order made its headquarters in the Castle of Castro Marim but in 1 357. King Pedro I moved them permanently to Tomar.
    Today, the Order of Christ is the oldest order of knighthood in the world with the president of Portugal as its grand master.
    When the Knights of the Order of Christ built extensions at the Convent of Tomar, they adopted a new Cross derived from the Cross of the Templars. They cut off the convex arcs from the extremities of the Templars Cross.
    By the end of the fourteenth century, the extremities of the Cross of Order of Christ went through another transformation. The branches began to take the angular form, terminating with concave arcs.

    Click on photo for larger view.
    Order of Christ with concave base. 1400

    The final metamorphosis of the Cross of the Order of Christ consisted in the establishment of the 45 degree extremities Also, the concave arcs became straight lines.
    After 1460 this fully developed form could be seen engraved tombs and documents years before the Corte Reais made their voyages to North America, They were simultaneously used on the different Portuguese landmarkers. As we shall demonstrate later, the Dighton Rock has inscribed on it the final trapezoidal form of the Cross.

    Click on photo for larger view.
    Second cross of the order of Christ (with concave base) 1400

    (23) Click on photo for larger view.

    (24) Click on photo for larger view.
    Both types of the Cross of the Order of Christ

    Click on photo for larger view.
    Portuguese navel training ship, SAGRES, showing the Cross of the Order of Christ on its sails.

    Click on photo for larger view.
    (26) XV century Portuguese carvel showing 45 degree Cross on its sails

    Click on photo for larger view.
    Detail of a 45 degree Cross on a tomb (Gonçalo de Sousa, 1469)

    Click on photo for larger view.

    Tower of Belém in the harbor of Lisbon. Erected on the spot from which all the navigators sailed for the unknown lands. It is ornated with Crosses of the Order of Christ with extremities at 45 degrees.

    Click on photo for larger view.

    Facing the mouth of the Tagus River. Veranda of the Tower of Belém with Cross of The Order of Christ terminating with a concave arc (second type)

    Click on photo for larger view.
    Facing Lisbon: Veranda of Tower of Belém with 45 degree Cross of The Order of Christ (third type)

    By the year 25 B.C. the Romans had completed the conquest of Lusitânia, the western part of the Iberian peninsula, and the future territory of Portugal. The Roman alphabet was adopted by the peoples of the whole peninsula. Despite the invasion of the Visigoths in 415 A.D. and of the Arabs in 711, the people of Lusitânia continued to use the Roman alphabet.

    The Romans adopted 21 letters from the Greek alphabet. Later they added the letter G (derived from C), Y (derived from V). The letters, J, U, and W were not used by the Romans at all. Because the Roman alphabet did not have the letter U, V was used instead during the Middle Ages.
    During the discoveries, the Portuguese stone cutters had always preferred the V over the letter U. Even today, we see on libraries and civic buildings, the letter V carved in place of the U. (Ex.: PVBLIC LIBRARY).
    The Roman alphabet contained only capital letters as we use them today. However, during the Middle Ages, the different scribes adopted the shape of the letters which suited their national styles, such as, the Uncial, Caroline (small letters) and Gothic forms.
    The evolution of these different styles did not have a fixed pattern in Portugal. During the period of the discoveries, we find mixed lettering in four different styles: Roman, Uncial, Caroline, and Gothic.
    As we shall demonstrate later, the name of Miguel Corte Real was inscribed on Dighton Rock in capital letters of the Roman, Uncial, and Gothic types.

    Click on photo for larger view.

    The Arab conquerors of the Iberian Peninsula (711 A.D.) gave to Europe the numerical
    system we use today. It was on the Iberian Peninsula that the 1-lindu-Arabic numerals were first used in Europe. The earliest document in Iberia written with Hindo-Arabic digits is dated 976 A.D.

    Numbers went through striking changes before they attained their present form. Be cause we will be examining the carved dates of 1501 and 1 5 11, we will limit ourselves to the study of the transformations that occurred in the digits 1, 5, and 0.
    More important, we have to know the form of these numerals during the discoveries.
    NUMBER I: The digit 1, as used in 16th century Portugal was written slightly shorter than other numbers with two serifs at the ends.

    NUMBER 5: Of all the numbers, digit 3 went through the greatest number of transformations. Initially, it looked like a 4 and later was similar to an h. Next, it took the form of an inverted 5. In 16th century Portugal, it took the shape of a capital S. This S-shaped 5 appears in churches, tombs, and landmarkers throughout Portugal.
    THE SYMBOL OF ZERO: Zero represents emptiness or void. To better convey the idea of zero, the Arabs wrote it in a smaller size in relation to the other numerals. This manner of writing the zero was adopted by the Portuguese.
    Knowing that numerals used in Portugal had the definite forms already described, one would expect to find on Portuguese landmarkers the year 1501 written as 1So1 and 1511 as IS11 (The numeral 5 was written like a capital S today).

    Click on photo for larger view.
    Tombstone at the Archeological Museum in Lisbon showing the numeral 5 like a capital "S"

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    Chapter 7
    Click on all photos for a larger view
    Dighton Rock in it's original site at midtide
    The position of Dighton Rock is 41.48° North, 71.7° West. It is located on the Atlantic Coast of the United States of America, in the southern part of Massachusetts. It rests on the left bank of Taunton River, 30 miles from the mouth of Narragansett Bay, within the boundaries of the town of Berkley. (The town of Berkley was formerly a part of Dighton. Dighton Rock faces the town of Dighton on the right side of the Taunton River.
    Dighton Rock is 9 miles from Fall River, 8 miles from Taunton, 20 miles from New Bedford, 50 miles from Boston, and 210 miles from New York City. (It can be reached by Mass. Route 21. Exit 10.)
    In November, 1952, the Miguel Corte Real Memorial Society of New York City acquired 49 1/2 acres of land ($5,0OO) adjacent to the Rock for the purpose of creating a park. However, in 1951 the Massachusetts Legislature expropriated the same land for a State Park. Many more acres were purchased and Dighton Rock State Park now has an area of 100 acres. The vicinity of Dighton Rock has been beautified and furnished with parking and picnic facilities.
    Up until August, 1963, Dighton Rock was situated on the left bank of the Taunton River between the flow of the high and low tides. At high tide, the top of the rock was covered by three to four feet of water. During the winter when the river was frozen, the rock could not be seen because of the thick ice cap. In the past the rock was covered by tidal water about 20 hours daily. Only during the period when the tide was sufficiently low (during new and full moon) could the inscriptions be satisfactorily studied but only for two hours each day.
    White Man's brook, near Dighton Rock
    For centuries this monument was covered with mud and exposed to all kinds of weather conditions. Ironically, because the inscriptions were covered by water most of the day, vandalism such as the throwing of stones or bottles or the engraving of initials and dates, was discouraged.
    Since 1 829, there were many proposals to remove the rock to various museums in Fall River, Boston, and even as far as Denmark. Only in 1955 was action taken to relocate the rock. However, because the cables of the crane damaged the rock, a court injunction was obtained to stop the removal.
    In 1963, the Massachusetts Department of Natural Resources ended a long controversy by proving that the rock was a boulder and not a ledge. The Department then built a coffer dam at a cost of $50,000. The rock is now situated on the cofferdam, eleven feet above its original level, and protected by a fence.
    Dighton Rock, covered by winter ice cap
    Damage to Dighton Rock from the 1st removal attempt in 1955
    Dighton Rock is approximately the form of a parallelepiped 5 feet high, 9 1/2 feet wide, and 11 feet long. The face of the rock overlooks the river, and has a trapezoidal surface, 11 feet long and 5 feet high. When the rock was in its original site, the face was inclined at an angle of 39 degrees to the vertical. Now, it is inclined at 70 degrees it continues to face northwest as before.
    Dighton Rock being removed from its original site (1963)
    Dighton Rock on Cofferdam. (1963) The inscriptions face the river.
    All the engravings on Dighton Rock delineated by Delabarre in 1927
    Click on all photos for a larger view
    Dighton Rock is a gray-brown feldspathic sandstone of medium to coarse density. It does not have a strong consistency. Weather and vandals have erased or obscured some of the original engravings. It has a density of2.45 g /cm3 and a volume of 500 + cubic feet. Therefore, it weighs approximately 40 tons.
    The first documents written about Dighton Rock refer to it as the “Dighton Writing Rock”. Perhaps. students of Dighton Rock use the word “writing’’ to better convey the fact that the rock has on it many inscriptions similar to a blackboard, with one writing on top of another. The depth of engraving runs from 2 to 7 millimeters The markings on the rock are not doodlings or cracks due to weathering. All the lilies carved on Dighton Rock were done by human hands, using sharp instruments of metal or hard stone
    There are two main reasons why the inscriptions have been a puzzle for so many years and to so many scholars:

    • (1) Throughout the years. different individuals have inscribed dates, their initials and other drawings on the surface of the rock obscuring the ORIGINAL inscriptions.
    • (2) Scholars did not correctly interpret the ORIGINAL inscriptions because they did not consider the possibility of a Portuguese origin

    Professor Edmund Delabarre published in 1927 a photograph of the face of the rock on which lie delineated all the lines en graved up until 1920. If we examine this photo graph. we are immediately overcome by a tangled net of lines. This mesh of lines and curves suggested to several scholars Greek, Japanese, or Hieroglyphic forms.
    To sonic scholars, the inscriptions became a joke. The attitude of the shortsighted scholar was expressed in this one sentence: “I believe the mystery of the inscriptions will never be interpreted.’’ That is what was said of Champollion and the Rosetta Stone.
    Edmund Burke Delabarre (1920)
    Around 1913 Professor Edmund Burke Delabarre became interested in the study of Dighton Rock because:

    • (1) He felt it to be: An exceedingly interesting problem in the psychology of perception as well as another in the psychology and art of copying.”
    • (2) As he delved into the bibliography of the rock, he realized that "no one has yet brought together all the available historical facts concerning the rock and discussion of it.’’

    Hathaway photo on which Delabarre first saw the date 1511. (Dec 2 1918)

    It took Delabarre two years to compile all the research concerning Dighton Rock. He found hundreds of articles dealing with the inscriptions: In 1915 he wrote the first volume entitled "Early interest in Dighton Rock’’ which was published by the Colonial Society of Massachusetts. In 1 916 he completed the "Middle Period of Dighton Rock History” and in 1919 "The Recent History of Dighton Rock”.
    In all three publications. Delabarre discussed the various theories, analyzing them without formulating any theory of his own. His investigation of Dighton Rock was impartial. Perhaps this was the reason why, after studying more than twenty distinct theories, an entirely new theory occurred to Delabarre: “It may well be imagined with what astonishment on examining the Hathaway Photograph for the hundredth time on December 2, 1918.
    I saw in it clearly and undoubtedly the date 1511. No one had ever seen it before, on rock or photograph: yet once seen, its genuine presence on the rock cannot be doubted. The date 1511 was the earliest date engraved on the rock. This date gave Delabarre an exact period of World History to examine and led him to research navigators or explorers who might have landed in New England just before or on that date.
    He began searching through European History and soon discovered that there existed in Lisbon, Portugal. royal charters attesting to the fact that Gaspar Corte Real came to North America in 1501—his second voyage—and never returned to Portugal. He further uncovered the fact that Miguel Cone Real, Gaspar’s brother left Lisbon on May 10. 1502 in his search. Both navigators, however, shared a similar fate, and never returned to their home land.
    With this in formation available, Delabarre once more began to review all of the drawings, paintings, and photographs of Dighton Rock in order to formulate a new diagnosis.

    Delabarre then verified that the date 1511 composed of shortened 's (ones) with serifs, and the 5, like a capital "S" could easily be deciphered:
    ‘‘Out of: twenty-seven drawings and chalking's of this part of the inscriptions, twenty one include both the initial and the final figures 1 , and only one omit them both."
    Following the same line of investigation, he easily proved that the capital letters MI and CORT were undoubtedly a part of Miguel Corte Real’s name. It should be noted that the last drawing made of the inscriptions (Rhode Island Historical Society, 1830) reveals more letters of Miguel Corte Real’s name, but were not recognized as such.
    A total of eight letters can be clearly seen on drawings and photographs made before 1918, that is, made by men who, (a) represented rival theories, (b) never gave any indication that they had ever thought of the Corte Real theory.
    As he continued to familiarize himself with Portuguese history and national symbols, Professor Delabarre eventually detected the ‘V” shaped Portuguese coat-of-arms inscribed on the lower south side of the face of the rock. Delabarre reports that this shield within a shield could be seen in drawings of the inscriptions as far back as 1 768, but was never recognized as the Portuguese coat-of-arms.
    As the originator of the Corte Real theory, Delabarre made the three basic discoveries:

    • (I) Date 1511 (detected December 2, 1918)
    • (2) The name of Miguel Corte Real.
    • (3) Portuguese "V" shaped coat of arms.

    (A) Miguel Corte Real (Folsom, 1868)
    (B) Miguel Corte Real (Blake 1876)

    (C) Miguel Corte Real - at daylight (Delabarre 1920)
    (D) Miguel Corte Real - (Delabarre, 1920) with flash light
    (E) Miguel Corte Real delineated by Delabarre (1920)

    Because he firmly established the Corte Real theory, Delabarre was awarded the Cross of the Order of Christ by the Portuguese government. This decoration contains the same 45 degrees cross as appears on Dighton Rock. Even while wearing the Cross of the Order of Christ on his chest, Delabarre, unfortunately, missed making the diagnosis of the same Cross engraved on Dighton Rock.
    Delabarre also proposed that the letters A.D. were engraved near the date 1511, and that a message in abbreviated Latin (V. Dei hic Dux Ind = By Grace of God, Chief of the Indians, here.), could be seen near the V shaped coat of arms. These additions to the theory are not correct as we shall see later.

    First photograph of Dighton Rock by Capt. Seth Eastman (1853)

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    Joseph Dâmaso Fragoso became interested in Dighton Rock in 1928, and 2 years later invited Prof. Delabarre to New York City to lecture on his findings. Fragoso studied the history of Dighton Rock for more than 20 years. He organized the Miguel Corte Real Memorial Society which bought 49 1/2 acres of land adjacent to the rock, and also founded a magazine entitled “The Portuguese World” to campaign for the establishment of a park to preserve the rock.

    Joseph Dâmaso Fragoso. He became the center of much controversy even sustaining bodily injuries while defending his beliefs about the Dighton Rock inscriptions.

    While a language instructor (Portuguese) at New York University, Fragoso wrote in 1951 a small article in which he describes the Cross of the Order of Christ on Dighton Rock. He stated that:

    • (a) “The base of the figure representing a doll on the left side of the rock (north side), cannot be anything else but one of the branches of the Cross of the Order of Christ.”
    • (b) “The so-called arms of the doll are also other branches of the Cross of the Order of Christ.”
    • (c) and what has been thought to be the face of the doll (mermaid or God) is nothing else but the Portuguese coat of arms, “U” shaped, with the Quinas of Portugal.”
    • (d) "Other fragments and extremities of the Cross of the Order of Christ can be seen above Miguel Corte Real’s name and next to the ‘V” shaped Portuguese coat of arms discovered by Delabarre on the right, side (south side) of the face of the inscriptions.’’

    Though Fragoso never made a drawing or a photograph of Dighton Rock in an attempt to explain his findings, examination of the early drawing reveals clearly that in the first document made by Rev. John Danforth in 1680, what he called a ‘‘ship without masts’’ is indeed the Cross of the Order of Christ.
    Fragoso's discovery of the Cross of the Order of Christ was the decisive contribution to the Corte Real theory. Actually, when we review all of the drawings from 1680 to 1919, the parts most consistent of the inscriptions are those belonging to the Cross of the Order of Christ.
    After giving serious consideration to Delabarre’s and Fragoso's theory, this author (then a Fellow in Internal Medicine at famous Lahey Clinic, in Boston) presented an exhaustive interpretation of the Dighton Rock at the First Inter national of the History of the Discoveries held in Lisbon, Portugal. (September 8, 1960).
    In this presentation the author concluded that:

    • (1) The letters A.D., near IS11, as proposed by Delabarre, do not exist.
    • (2) The name of Miguel Corte Real appears as Delabarre so indicated.
    • (3) The "V" shaped Portuguese coat of arms is engraved on the rock.
    • (4) The message in abbreviated Latin (V. Dei hic Dux IND) is not on Dighton Rock because of the following objections:

    (a) The abbreviated forms were too hypothetical,
    (b) The letter's have an inconsistent size and shape (e.g. not all capital letters),
    (c) Other Portuguese land markers do not have Latin inscriptions,
    (d) The lines attributed to the X and N form part of the angles of the Cross of the Order of Christ.
    (5) There are four Crosses of the Order of Christ, one U-shaped Portuguese Coat of Arms, and one V-shaped Portuguese Coat of Arms, engraved on Dighton Rock.
    With all respect to Professor Delabarre, as he was the first to give a correct interpretation to some of the engravings the author believes that his “message in Latin’’ has been a hindrance to the acceptance of the Corte Real Theory. This “Latin message’’ unfortunately, has been an error that continues to be repeated by those who are not familiar with the Cross of The Order of Christ, or by scholars who desire to exaggerate doubts, because they do not want to accept a Portuguese theory.
    In respect to Fragoso's, who first discovered the Crosses of Order of Christ on Dighton Rock, the author must criticize his adherence to Delabarre’s non-existing Latin message, and also his failure to point out the fragments of another Cross of the Order of Christ which lies parallel to the one he had described above Miguel Corte Real’s name.

    Delabarre's "message in Latin"

    What Delabarre thought to be an "N" and "X" are fragments of the Cross of the Order of Christ.

    Click on all photos for a larger view

    THE COMPLETE CORTE REAL THEORY: Photo by da Silva, (Nov 1959)

    The following table lists the four groups of symbols attributed to Dighton Rock. Keeping these four characteristics in mind, we can proceed to examine the most outstanding reproductions of the Dighton Rock inscriptions.

    The first recorded document of the Dighton Rock inscriptions was produced by Reverend John Danforth in 1680. Danforth drew only the upper half of the inscriptions, perhaps because the lower half was covered by tidal water most of the day. Danforth’s interpretation of his drawing was described as follows:
    It is reported from the tradition of the old Indians, that there came a wooden house (and men of another country in it) swimming up the river Assonet, that fought the Indians and slew their Saunchem (Sachem) . Some interpret the figures here to be hieroglyphical. The first figure representing a ship, without masts, and a meer (mere) wreack cast upon the Shoales. The second representing an head of land, possibly a cape with a peninsula. Hence a gulf.”
    In 1732. the Royal Society of London requested and received Danforth’s copy of Dighton Rock and later presented it to the British Museum where it is preserved today.

    The first document of Dighton Rock was made by John Danforth in 1680

    It can be readily seen that what Danforth called “a ship without masts” or a “peninsula” are indeed sections of the Cross of the Order of Christ.

    The fact that so many fragments of the Cross of the Order of Christ appeared on the first drawing is sufficient evidence to eliminate any suspicion that the Cross was engraved in recent times to support the Portuguese theory.

    In 1788, James Winthrop placed a large sheet of paper across the face of Dighton Rock and obtained a rubbing of the inscriptions. Afterwards he made a reduced copy in the same scale as the original.
    In this Winthrop copy we can distinguish a more complete Cross of the Order of Christ on the upper center of the inscriptions. On the north side appears the base of another cross and the so-called “face of a mermaid” which is actually the Quinas of Portugal. On the south side, the V within a V-shaped shield and the lower branch of another cross begin to take shape.

    The Stephen Sewell copy made in 1788 depicts some of the letters and the complete V-shaped shield.

    Two years later, in 1790, Baylies and Goodwin drew a complete M, and a diamond shaped Gothic 0, an R, and part of a T. The entire V-shaped shield was drawn, but was not recognized as the Portuguese symbol.

    In 1830, a copy of the inscriptions was commissioned by the Rhode Island Historical Society . In this reproduction, the letters M, I, part of the C and 0 (both Gothic), R, T, and part of E were revealed. This copy again delineates the fragments of the Cross of the Order of Christ, and the U- and V-shaped Portuguese coat of arms. And once again, the students of Dighton Rock failed to discover that these symbols were Portuguese.

    The Rhode Island Historical Society drawing, together with a sketch of the Dighton Rock and its surroundings, were sent in 1834 to Professor Charles C. Rafn of Denmark who had requested in 1829 evidence of Norse voyages to North America. Wishing to substantiate his preconceived Norse theory, Rafn, who never came to America, proceeded to interpret the letters in Corte Real’s name as Runic for Thorfinn, a Norse explorer.

    Bartlett's view or sketch 1834

    Rafn, unfortunately, influenced public opinion in favor of the Norse theory by encouraging a hysterical rather than a historical controversy. He not only attributed the Dighton Rock inscriptions to the Norsemen, but further claimed that the Newport Tower was also built by the Vikings.
    Rafn based his claim for Newport Tower on the Viking theory for Dighton Rock, but later Delabarre proved that the Norsemen had nothing to do with the Dighton Rock inscriptions.
    In the following series of copies, we observe progressively greater detail recorded from one copy to another. Paradoxically, as the engravings continued to weather over the centuries, the copies became more complete in detail. If we were to superimpose these copies, one upon another, we would obtain a composite of all the lines which make up the engravings carved by Miguel Corte Real, in 1511.
    Click here to see modern photos
    and close-ups of the face of Dighton Rock
    Dighton Rock is approximately 3,000 nautical miles from Lisbon, Portugal. Yellala Rock is 5000 nautical miles from Lisbon. It is located 147 miles from the mouth of the Congo River, and has inscriptions on it made by Diogo Cão in 1484
    These inscriptions are typical of the Portuguese landmarkers, and show the transition from the high type cross to the Cross of the Order of Christ with concave base extremities. The Yellala inscriptions states in Portuguese: “The ships of wise King John II arrived here Diogo Cão, Pero Anes, Pero da Costa.”
    IN ASIA:
    The St. Laurence Rock, in Ceylon, is approximately 10,000 nautical miles from Lisbon. The Cross engraved there is the early form of the Cross of the Order of Christ with straight base extremities. The date 1501 on the St. Laurence Rock is illustrative of the form in which the Arabic numerals were written in Portugal. The digit one (1) is short and with serifs. The numeral 5 is in the form of a large capital 5, and the zero is made small to conform with the concept of emptiness.

    ASIAN "CONTINENT": St Lawrence Rock (10,000 miles from Lisbon) Notice the date 1501 with short ones and the fives like a capitol "S"

    AFRICAN CONTINENT: Yellala Rock (5,000 miles from Lisbon.)
    The similarity of these three landmarkers, so many thousands of miles away from each other, is indeed striking. They have engraved on them the same Portuguese coat of arms, the same Cross of the Order of Christ, and the same style of numerals.
    The uniform use of these Portuguese national and religious symbols is a result of the fact that the Portuguese navigators received the same training and education at the School of Prince Henry the Navigator. In contrast to the early forms of the Cross engraved on the St. Laurence and the Yellala Rock, the Cross of the Order of Christ on Dighton Rock has the mature form of 45 degree extremities, the only cross of its kind in the world.
    We consider the Dighton Rock inscriptions primary evidence for the Corte Real theory. In the next four chapters we present the secondary evidence for the Portuguese theory.

    pilgrim chapter 7

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    Chapter 8
    Click on all photos for a larger view
    In the first dictionary of the language of the New England Indians, compiled by Roger Williams (1643) and entitled “Key Into The Language of America”, we can verify that the name of the Wampanoag Tribe meant “white people” in English. Wompi ( = white) combines with nanoag (people or men) to form Wampanoag. Another example, is the word wampum which refers to white shell money used by the Wampanoags.
    Roger Williams noted that the Wampanoags “themselves are tawnie, by the Sunne and their annoyntings, yet they are borne white”. He also remarked along with his Pilgrim contemporaries on the unusual friendliness of the Wampanoag Indians. For example, Massasoit, the Chief of the Wampanoags, was given the epithet of “good chief” by the Pilgrims whom he protected.
    A century before the Pilgrims landed, Giovanni Verrazzano sailed on Narragansett Bay (1524) for fifteen days and was also quite impressed by the friendly nature of the Wampanoag Indians. The three existing copies of the letter attributed to Verrazzano, describing his voyage to North America, are somewhat different from each other. However, all three copies give the same description of the aborigines of Narragansett Bay:

    • (1) “This is the finest looking tribe (Wampanoag) , and the handsomest in their costumes, that we have found in our voyage. They exceed us in size, and they are of a very fair complexion; some of them incline more to a white and others to a tawny color. (di colore bianchissimo; aicuni (some, not all) pendano piu in bianchezza, altri in color flavo).
    • (2) . . “Their faces are sharp, their hair long and black, upon the adorning of which they bestow great pains; their eyes are black and sharp, their expressions mild and pleasant.”
    • (3) “Their women are of the same form and beauty, very graceful, of fine countenance, and of pleasing appearance and manners and modesty.”
    • (4) “We find (them) kind and gentle”... “We formed a great friendship with them”
    • (5) The Wampanoags are “situated in 41 degrees 40 minute of north latitude”

    Dighton Rock, "White Man's Brook." and it's source, the White Spring

    Although the navigators of the time had difficulty in measuring longitude, they accurately calculated latitudes in a routine fashion “by taking the sun’s altitude from day to day” (Verrazzano). Both “the very excellent harbor” where Verrazzano found “the white and friendly Indians” and the Mount Hope (Bristol, R. I.) headquarters of the Wampanoag Indians are situated in the latitude of 41°40' minutes’. Dighton Rock, which is only 12 miles north of Mount Hope and within the Narragansett Delta, is situated at 41 degrees 48' minutes latitude.

    The descriptions given of “white and friendly (Wampanoag) Indians” by Verrazzano, Roger Williams, and the Pilgrim writers, constitute enough anthropological evidence to merit our analysis of the genetics and the linguistics of the Wampanoag Tribe.
    The nine years between the arrival of Corte Real and his crew in New England (1502) and the date on Dighton Rock (1511) is sufficiently long for the Portuguese to have lived intimately with these natives. Few realize, that of all European peoples, the Portuguese were always the ones which mingled most freely with the natives among which they settled.

    Detail from "The Final Judgment" by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, Vatican. A Portuguese bending down tries to raise to Heaven two gentiles: A Negro from African and an Indian from Brazil

    Motivated by a sense of brotherhood or, perhaps, simple promiscuity they mixed with the natives, imparting their language and physical characteristics. This Portuguese manner of civilization is succinctly expressed by Gilberto Freyre, a Brazilian philosopher: “God created the white and the Negro, and the Portuguese made the mulatto!”

    Genetic scheme of Mestiço hybrid (Dobzhansky)

    The apparent skin color of a person is determined by three components: carotene, oxyhemoglobin, and melanin. It is melanin, however, which constitutes the true pigment of the skin. The variation in the amount of melanin produces skin shades from white to black. In the interbreeding of black and white races, half of the genes (black producing more pigment) , and the other half (white genes producing less pigment), always blend together. It has been verified that the genetic mixing of pure Negroes with pure Caucasians always produces, in the first generation, Mulattoes of intermediate skin color.
    Dobzhansky’s diagram shows clearly that in the first generation the pigment genes are equally represented — (half white and half black) —producing always a Mulatto. While in the first generation the white and black genes are equally represented, later generations show a greater variability in the combinations of these genes. Thus, the skin color of the subsequent generations can extend from extremely dark or pure black to extremely fair or pure white.
    Re-examining Dobzhanskv’s diagram we can better visualize the genetic mosaic of skin tones for the third or fourth generation with its greater genetic variability.

    The interbreeding of an American Indian with a pure white produces a specific type of mulatto called Mestiço or half breed. Anthropological studies done in North, Central, and South America are in agreement that the genetic distribution of the pigment genes in the Mestiço is the same as that of the mulatto, but extending over a range of lighter skin colors.
    It has also been observed that the Indian Mestiço of the first generation is taller than the full-blooded parents. Pure American Indians have a larger and rounder face than the Caucasians. However, American Indian hybrids of the first generation were found to have faces of a smaller size and narrower form, approaching the characteristics of the white pa rent.
    Dr. Lawrence Angel, Curator of the Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution, wrote: “One further point of interest is that American Indians, especially the Eastern Woodland variants, were much less different from Europeans in size and other measurements than are most Mongoloid or proto-Mongoloid groups.”
    There is an interval of 22 years between the arrival of Miguel Corte Real (1502) and Verrazzano (1524) . During these two decades ample time was provided for the first generation of Mestiços to attain young adulthood. Thus, we can understand Verrazzano’s amazement at finding white Indians among the Wampanoags in contrast with the dark skinned tribes he encountered to the South.
    When the Pilgrims and Roger Williams described the whiteness of the Wampanoag Indians they were observing Mestiços of the fourth generation because the average life span was approximately thirty years for the aborigines of that period. It is not difficult to accept the theory that the Wampanoag Indians had genetic contact with white men if we consider the reports of their friendly behavior and fair ness of skin.
    If the Wampanoag Indians had indeed such genetic and cultural intercourse with white men, we would expect that, besides the imprint of civilized manners and light skin color, the language of the newly arrived race must also have been assimilated by the aborigines.
    If our interpretation is correct, and the white men in question were Miguel Corte Real and his crew, we should be able to find proper and place names of Portuguese origin in the Wampanoag language.

    Before we take on the task of analyzing the vocabulary of the Indians of New England, we should review the Portuguese words which have been used in more than 60 languages since the time of the Portuguese discoveries. The most profound cultural influence left by any explorer or settler is his language. It resists the “washing out” of generations, particularly if the words are descriptive of things new to the inhabitants.
    In the 16th Century, Portuguese was the first modern language to be spoken on all the continents. The impact of Portuguese navigators and missionaries was so great that even today, 53 Asiatic languages in Indian, Ceylon, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Burma, Formosa, the Philippines, Japan — employ Portuguese words. Today, among hundreds of languages, Portuguese is the eighth most spoken in the world.
    The Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach Japan. Fernando Mendes Pinto, Cristovão Borralho, Diogo Zaimoto, and António da Mota all taught the Japanese the use of gun powder in the harquebus (1542).
    Later the Portuguese founded the city of Nagasaki as a commercial center where they introduced tobacco by growing it on the hill sides of the city. At the same time they converted many of the Japanese to the Catholic religion and constructed many churches.
    Most significant of all, many Portuguese words indicating objects and religious terms foreign to the Japanese were so strongly assimilated that even today the Japanese language contains 90 Portuguese-derived words. We should note that some of the Portuguese-Japanese words are seldom used today, but others are part of everyday conversation throughout modern Japan.












































    Sug. coy, almond







































    Pants (shorts)



























    Beads of Rosary



















































    a great deal
    Portugal was the first modern nation to have an empire in which the sun never set. During the discoveries, the Atlantic Ocean practically became a Portuguese Sea.
    When Spain began to challenge Portugal’s supremacy in the Atlantic after Columbus’ voyage (1492) to West Indies, the two peninsular monarchs compromised their ambitions by agreeing to the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). They divided the World into two halves by drawing an imaginary line from pole to pole, 370 leagues west of Cape Verde Islands. All territories lying west of that line would belong to Spain: all other lands on the east side of the same meridian and discovered by the Portuguese up to 1494 would belong to Portugal. In the early maps which describe the Tordesillas line (e.g. Cantino map) , we can see that Newfoundland and eastern Canada in the north, and Brazil in the south, were included in the Atlantic dominions of Portugal.
    Even today, the Portuguese-speaking communities, as remnants of a huge empire, constitute the most strategic chain of territories from North to South Atlantic (the 23 islands of the Azores, Madeira, Cape Verde, São Tome, and Príncipe, plus the territories of Portuguese Guiné and Angola and Brazil).
    Ninety years before the Corte Real theory was conceived, Reverend George Patterson, D. D. wrote a monograph entitled “The Portuguese on the North-East Coast of America, and the first European attempt at Colonization There. A Lost Chapter in American History,” (1890).
    Reverend Patterson presented a list of 52 place names of Portuguese origin along the coast of Canada. He based his study on the revision of place names in early maps made by various cartographers, selecting only those names that had either continued in use to that date (1890) or had been employed for long periods in earlier times.
    For example, the word Kanata is an Indian word derived from “Canada”, a Portuguese word used in the 15th century to denote a narrow bordered passage traced in an un known wilderness. This was the name given to the St. Lawrence River by the Portuguese navigators during their search for the Northwest passage to India. In Newfoundland there is a narrow bay, known as Canada Bay, a narrow harbor called Canada Harbor with a cape at its entrance named Canada Head. Bacallaus, another word once thought to be Indian, is Portuguese for codfish. Even to day in Portugal, Newfoundland is referred to as the land of Bacalhaus as it was named on many early maps of different cartographers.



    Ante Costa



    Baccaro Point


    Cape Blanco

    Cabo Branco

    Boa Ventura

    Boa Ventura

    Bona Vista

    Boa Vista

    Brazil Rock

    Rocha Brasil



    Canada Bay

    Baia do Canada

    Canada Harbor

    Enseada do Canada

    Canada Head

    Ponta do Canada







    Conception Bay

    Baja de Concepcão







    Flowers Island

    Ilha das Flores

    Baya Fundo

    Baia funda

    San Francesquo

    São Francisco

    I das Garnas

    Ilha das Gamas









    Monte Real

    Monte Real



    Porto Novo

    Porto NOVO

    Port Real

    Porto Real

    Portugal Cove

    Enseada Portugal

    Portuguese Shoal


    San Johan

    São João

    St. Michaels Bay

    São Miguel

    San Paulo

    São Paulo

    San Pedro

    São Pedro

    Tor Bay

    Baía da Torre
    Labrador (from Labrador) , meaning farmer, was the surname of Joao Fernandes, who discovered the region of Cabo Razo, today Cape Race, meaning in Portuguese “flat cape”, which accurately describes its appearance. Patterson strongly asserted that the Portuguese navigators were the first colonizers of North America: “The fact that so many names should have been affixed to places so firmly as to adhere to them through all the changes of well nigh four hundred years is very significant. It clearly implies occupancy, and that for sometime. The mere visit of an explorer could not itself have effected such a result.”
    Now that we have traveled around the world and verified the influence of the Portuguese language on so many and diversified peoples, it is time to review the language of the Indians of New England and sort out the place and proper names of Portuguese origin. We should note that the Indians of eastern Canada were part of the Algonquin Nation which also included all the Indian tribes of New England and the coastal tribes extending to Virginia. It is also necessary to recall that from the time of Miguel Corte Real (1502) to the landing of the Pilgrims (1620) there passed about four generations of American Indians, the life span being approximately thirty years.
    In 1617 a plague swept through New Eng land and wiped out several tribes completely, while killing the older Indians of the surviving tribes. The Pilgrims were forced to rely! on oral tradition to record the Algonquin language be cause the Indians had no alphabet or written language.
    Any linguistic influence on the Wampanoags had to sift through at least four filters before the Pilgrim Writers had occasion to register the Indian names and places in writ ten form. The phonetics and the meaning of each word had to resist the "washing out” of four generations:
    Before proceeding, we should remember that Quina is the name of the Portuguese Coat of Arms. The Portuguese flag is called Bandeira das Quinas, or Flag of Quinas.
    The word Quina mar also refer to the extract of cinchona bark, an evergreen from which the quinine drugs are obtained. Inasmuch as this alkaloid was first found in Peru (1638) it could not have been reported in Europe prior to the departure of the Pilgrims in 1620. Since the natural habitat of the cinchona tree extends only 20° above or below the equator — in Peru, the Congo, São Tomé, the East Indies, and Ceylon it cannot grow in North America. Quina in American Indian, therefore, must be a Portuguese derivation or native in some way other than as a reference to the Quina tree.
    Quina was combined with the names of the tribal chiefs of New England to denote nobility and leadership. Massasoit (massa=great + soit=chief) was the king or sachem of the Wampanoag Indians who occupied eastern Rhode Island and Massachusetts, including Cape Cod.
    However, Massasoit was only his title, from which we derive Massachusetts”. His name was actually Osamequina, which meant “Yellow Feather” or “Strong Power”. The pronunciation of Osamequina is not greatly changed if the spelling is altered to Osanaquina. The addition of an “H” (silent in Portuguese) converts the word to Hosanaquina — meaning “Glory to the King” or “God save the King”. Massasoit would probably have been addressed as Osanaquina or Hosanaquina as a form of respect and loyalty. His famous son, King’ Philip, was also addressed as Osamequina.
    The name of Massasoit’s brother, Quadequina, was one hundred per cent Portuguese: quade, the version of corte from Corte Real, plus quina. The Narragansett sachem’s name was Quinapin and Maine’s tribal chief was called Amen quina. Massasoit’s minister of war was Testaquina. In Portuguese, testa means “tough” or “rigid”, probably a clue to the man’s character and his policy with other tribes. Several Indian sites in New England have names that include the word quina.
    The genetic name for all the tribes of the so-called Indian Federation was Algonquin. Algonquins, Algonkins, or Algonquinas, is a combination of the Portuguese words, quinas for the five dots of the Portuguese emblem and Algon which is derived from one of two forms:
    (1) Algarve, the name of the most southern province of Portugal where Prince Henry the Navigator developed his School of Navigation at Sagres, and where the Corte Real family originated;
    (2) Algo, (somebody) which in Portuguese refers to a person who is important or prominent. Fidalgo (=nobleman) was derived from the contraction of Filho de Algo, meaning “son of somebody”.
    The Pilgrims and the other English writers who followed them recorded the names and places of the natives in more tham1 fifty histories and dictionaries. They used, of course, English phonetics to compile the Indian vocabulary. Thus we find some variations in the spelling of Indian words, but more importantly they retain the same meaning.
    The Romance languages (Italian, French, Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish) have many words that are common to each other. As we review the Algonquin word list of Portuguese origin, some terms are easily recognized as Spanish or Italian. However, there are other nouns which cannot belong to any other language but Portuguese.
    Nowadays we are concerned with an atomic shelter. The American Indians of New England needed an Abrigador, their word for shelter. This is the same word with the same meaning used today in Portuguese. The essentials of Indian life were not much different from ours. When they wanted a small inlet or hiding place for their canoes, they wanted an Abrigada. Abrigada is a name which refers to a small bay, such as those along the coast of Portugal.
    Other examples are:

    1. Cabbo, in American-Indian, meaning cape in English, has the Portuguese equivalent of cabo.
    2. Casco, meaning round in American Indian, corresponds to the Portuguese casco or the small barrel which was used to contain drinking water on the caravels.
    3. Curvo, meaning curve in American Indian, is curvo in Portuguese.
    4. Pico, (Indian) meaning peak, is the name of the Azorian Island, Pico, the highest point in the Atlantic.
    5. Manhan, (Indian) meaning east, is the same word manhan in Portuguese for very early in the morning.

    One of the most impressive Indian words is Sementels, meaning grains. Today the unique Portuguese word for grains is Sementes.
    Pocasset, (Indian) derived from the Portuguese word pouca meaning little or small, is another word commonly used in Portugal. It describes well the small Pocasset bays at Cape Cod and Mt. Hope. The famous Indian princess, Pocahontas, was given her name because she was a “little woman”.
    Vasque was for five generations the name of the first-born of the Corte-Real family. It should not come as a surprise that the Indians used the name Wasque as in Wasque Point and Pasque Island, both in Buzzards Bay.
    During the time of the great explorations, several names were bywords to the Portuguese navigators. Tomar was (and still is) the name of the city that housed the headquarters of the Order of Christ, where all the navigators received their religious training. When the Pilgrims arrived in America, they discovered the following Indian names: Tomah River, Tomah Brook, and Tomah Lake (the H is sounded).
    Tagus is the name of the river running through Lisbon from which all the sea expeditions departed. From the Indians, the Pilgrims heard of the Togus River and Togus Lake.
    Sagres was the name of the ocean promontory where Prince Henry! housed his school of navigation. Saugus, an Indian name, is a town north of Boston. And three miles west of Dighton Rock, there is a locale named Sagues. In addition to its phonetic similarity to Sagres, it meant in Indian “wet by overflow”, which is somewhat descriptive of Sagres, where the Promontory is always wet by the splashing of the waves.
    Some of these words illustrate by them selves the epic of the Portuguese discoveries from one extreme of the globe to the other. For example, the word Catana, means “big knife”. It is used in Portugal and its overseas provinces, Brazil, Japan, and was used by American Indians of New England.
    Mount Hope (Bristol, R. I.) the highest point in Narragansett Bay is a name derived from the Indian word Montaup, meaning “lookout place”. In Portuguese Mon'alto meaning a “high mount”, is pronounced very similar to montaup.
    We have seen that the Portuguese missionaries gave the religious word Amen to the Japanese people. Thus we have Amenquina as the name of an Indian chief.

    Profile Rock, is five miles east of Dighton Rock. It served as a natural shelter for the Wampanoags and a stopping place from Cape Cod to the Taunton River

    The Japanese were not acquainted with bread until the Portuguese arrived. This is the reason why in Japan today they still use the Portuguese word for bread: Pan (Pão, in modern Portuguese) . But the word Pano (Indian) in the Catholic mass had a religious significance. Another Indian chief was named Panoquina (Pano + Quina). The word Hosana, meaning “Glory to the King” is also used in the Catholic mass. This is the origin of the name Osanaquina. The Indians also called their God, Okeus, which is derived from the Portuguese “0 Deus”, meaning “God”.
    One of the outcomes of the Portuguese discoveries was the spreading of the Christian faith. And the foregoing linguistic analysis indicates that Miguel Corte Real attempted to Christianize the Indians.
    Fado, meaning “fate” is a type of Portuguese national folk song. It is usually dramatic and melancholic.
    The Portuguese attempt at colonization New England is indeed a “lost chapter in American History”. While the Portuguese colonizers have shared the “fate” of the Indians, the words echo again. And when a Nova Scotian poet lamented the passing of the red man. he may well have sung a fado for the Portuguese Indian:
    “The memory of the red man,
    How can it pass away,
    When its names of music linger,
    On each mount, and stream and bay!’

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    I've had a problem when copying and pasting the files. For some reason, the charts with Japanese/Portuguese or Canadian Indian/Portuguese words have come out in one column instead of three or two. But I guess you can still get the idea.

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    Chapter 9
    Click on all photos for a larger view

    The Newport Tower at night
    The Newport Tower, located in Touro Park (Newport, Rhode island) , is considered the single most enigmatic and puzzling structure to be found in the United States. Many scholars here and abroad have written extensively about its probable builders. They all agree that it was not erected by the American Indians. Its architectural characteristics indicate a style from Europe or the Near East.
    LOCATION: The tower is situated at 41degrees and 27 minutes north latitude on the highest point of the peninsula which forms the City of Newport. It was built about a half mile from both the East and West shore lines of the city. Its panoramic view dominates all water entrances of the Narragansett Delta.

    Newport Tower covered with vine and surrounded by its first iron fence. (1873)

    ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES: The tower is a cylindrical structure with an outside diameter of 23 feet, and 24½ feet in height. It has eight round columns or pillars, 7½ feet high.
    Columns 1 and 5 are situated in a true North-South line oriented by the North Star. Each column rests on a base with a circumference of 12 feet. The columns are connected by 8 round arches, forming an inverted U and suggesting a Romanesque style.
    Above the arches are three principal windows. The first window, at 700 east northeast looks toward Easton Point and the mouth of the Sakonnet River. The second window is situated due south facing the Atlantic Ocean. The third window points west facing Newport Harbor and the entrance to Narragansett Bay.
    Inside, the Tower has 7 small niches and a so-called “fireplace” built into the wall. At the top of each column on the inner side, and between the arches, there are triangular sockets which served to insert wooden beams. The Tower is composed of laminated slate, sea-worn stones and mortar. The mortar is composed of sand, fine gravel and lime derived from sea shells or limestone. All these materials were native and could be found within the region nearby. The seashore is only one-half mile away.

    Evolution of the round tower.
    OCTAGONAL CONFIGURATION: The round arch as an architectural form, first appeared in the Near East. Byzantine architects (IV th Century, A.D.) began constructing four-sided towers, gradually evolving into an octagonal shape, and finally! building round towers on which to rest the domes of their churches.
    Since then, both the round and octagonal forms have been used interchangeably as serving the same architectural function. Both styles were adopted throughout Christendom. The church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem (built 330 A.D.) containing the tomb of Christ, has a round altar. The Templars worshipped at the main altar of the Holy Sepulcher Church. Upon returning from the Crusades (XII th Century) they introduced round and octagonal churches throughout most of Europe.
    Initially, the round towers were used to support domes which symbolized the stars or heaven. But soon the same style was used in building the watchtowers of the medieval castles. There are many round and octagonal churches in Europe but most are to be found in Southern Europe. The secret of the Newport Tower lies in one of these round European structures erected by the Templars.
    THEORIES: There are two major theories concerning the origin of Newport Tower: 1) the Arnold or Yankee theory, 2) The Norse, Viking, or Scandinavian theory.
    THE ARNOLD THEORY The Arnold theory is based on two assumptions:
    I) Benedict Arnold, Governor of Newport, R. I. refers to the Tower in his, will (November 24, 1677) as "my stone built-wind mill”
    2) The architectural form of the Tower resembles a windmill standing in Chesterton, England, where Arnold was born. Robert Philip Means in his book, New port Tower (1942,) disproved conclusively the Arnold theory.
    First, Means shows that Arnold was born far from the Town of Chesterton and what the Arnoldists refer to as a “mill” was actually an observatory of six arches and six columns. He also observes that in the year 1675 when Arnold was supposed to have built the Tower — the colonists were engaged in a bloody Indian war known as “King Philip’s War.” The year 1 675 marked the peak of the war between colonists and Indians. How could Arnold mobilize the manpower to move tons of material to build such a fancy “windmill” and not erect instead a fort to protect the whites from the rampaging red men? “Building from the ground up so amazing a windmill under these circumstances is inconceivable”, Means asserted.
    And he finally proposed that, if Governor Arnold built the Newport Tower he should be credited with ‘The first and only tower wind mill in the English-speaking world.”
    If the Arnoldists insist on supporting their theory with a pair of hyphenated words (“stone built-windmill") they will be propping their view only with sentimentality and prejudice.
    THE NORSE THEORY The Viking theory is based on three assert ions:
    1) According to the “Vindland Sagas”, the Norsemen (Norwegians chiefly, Danes and Swedes) made voyages to North America from the Xth to the XIIth Centuries:

    • a) Leif Ericsson c. l0l0A.D.
    • b) Thorfinn Karlsefin c. 1010 A.D.
    • c) Bishop Eric Grunpfson c. 1121 A.D.

    2) The Norsemen, during that period, made the inscriptions on Dighton Rock.
    3) The Norsemen also built the Newport Tower as a Catholic Scandinavian church.
    1) The "Vindland Sagas" can not be considered reliable historical references. The scholars that have studied the "Sagas" are the first to admit that they are a collection of legends carried down through generations of hearsay. Until more concrete evidence is found, no historical value can be attributed to the tales described in the voyages of the Norseman to North America and more specifically to the Narragansett Bay.
    2) It has been demonstrated conclusively (Chap. 7) that the theory proposed by Charles Rafn in 1836, namely that Thorfinn Karlsefni was the author of the Dighton Rock inscriptions, has no foundation and is totally erroneous.
    3) The Scandinavians were the last to accept the Catholic religion. They also have the smallest number of round or octagonal churches in Europe. Denmark has one octagonal and three round churches. Sweden has two round ones and Norway none.
    Robert Means, after doing such excellent work in killing the Arnold theory, went specially to the Scandinavian countries hoping to find an abundance of round churches to up hold the Norse theory. He was heartbroken, when in Norway, the country chiefly associated with the Norse voyages, he could not find even one round or octagonal church standing.
    If we assume that Ericsson and Karlsefin came to America in the XIIth Century, it is obvious they could not have built the Newport Tower inspired by the style of the Holy Sepulchre rotunda, because the first crusade to the Holy Land took place a century later.
    Bishop Eric Grunpfson also could not have built the round tower of Newport because there were, before his supposed departure, no round or octagonal churches in any of the Scandinavian countries. It is impossible to believe that with the tempting offer of heaven to those who would participate in the crusades, some Bishop would choose to venture into the unknown Atlantic to Christianize the natives, when Christian Europe was actively fighting the Arab and Turkish infidels. If the Norsemen made so many trips to North America, as noted in the “Sagas”, why did they not build any other church, round or square, elsewhere in America?
    If the Norsemen did come to North America, it is because they drifted into the Greenland Current which runs from Europe to Greenland. With their type of sailing vessel, the Norsemen could not navigate below the tip of Cape Cod, against the strong opposing winds and currents of the Gulf Stream. Centuries later, this same current forced the Pilgrims to navigate above Cape Cod, and away from their original destination of Virginia.
    The Norsemen also did not have the jib sail, which was necessary in order to navigate against the wind or in a zigzag fashion. This technique was later developed by the Portuguese. It is absurd to claim that the Norsemen navigated the rough North Atlantic, from Ice land or Greenland, directly to Narragansett Bay before the discovery of the caravel.
    The arguments in favor of the Norse theory are much weaker than those backing the Arnold theory. They are so vague and un specific, that the Nordists can hardly support their theory on ethnic sentimentality and prejudice.
    Means confessed to be “bothered” by the evidence of Dighton Rock inscriptions in favor of Corte Real and also by the cannon and sword found near Ninigret Fort. He also states that “he saw in the old Portuguese fort of Tangier cannons like this one (at Ninigret) “.
    Disillusioned, Means, who painstakingly gathered material for the Norse theory, in the last chapter of his book nevertheless assigns a meager “five per cent” probability to the Portuguese theory of Newport Tower.
    PORTUGUESE THEORY: The Portuguese theory begins in Tomar, a city in central Portugal. It is not a legend nor a saga. It is there today, gallant and beautiful, as the main rotunda or Charola of the Castle of Tomar. It was erected in 1160 by the Portuguese Order of Templars, which later in 1320 was named Order of Christ. This Order furnished the financial resources, the man power, and religious training for the navigators and missionaries of the Portuguese discoveries.
    The Portuguese Templars, inspired by the round and octagonal churches they saw in the Near East, especially the Hold Sepulcher, built five castles (Almoural, Idanha, Monsanto, Pombal, Tomar and Zêzere), in the same style.
    Herbert Pell (1948)
    The Castle of Tomar is the prototype of the Portuguese octagonal rotundas with eight arches. It has an outside wall which is round and terminates in a watch tower. Herbert Pell, former United States Ambassador to Portugal, was the first (1948) to make the direct connection between Newport Tower and the main tower of the Castle of Tomar.
    Newport Tower with 8 arches.
    CHAROLA or main alter with 8 round arches, in the Convent of Tomar.
    He pointed out that the Portuguese have always been good masons: “Even today their favorite way of construction is to use small stones thickly embedded in cement” which was the method used in Newport Tower. Pell should have noted that the Portuguese, during the time of the discoveries, used the same method to build more than 150 castles and churches in North, West, and East Africa, the Far East (Ceylon, Japan, India) and Brazil.
    No European country has built more churches and castles with round and octagonal towers than Portugal in so many distant lands. In fact, the Portuguese flag is the only one in the world on which there are castles. The arches of these castles resemble those of the Newport Tower.
    It does not matter for which purpose the Newport Tower was built:

    • (a) windmill,
    • (b) Catholic church rotunda,
    • (c) watchtower

    The evidence in favor of the Portuguese theory by far outweighs that of the Yankee or Norse theories. The round windmills, which had their origin in Persia, were introduced into Europe by the Moors via the Iberian Peninsula. Advanced knowledge of the windmills was acquired by the Portuguese Navigators on their voyages to the Persian Gulf.
    In the United States, it is thought that Holland is the country that has the largest number of windmills. In actual fact, the Dutch have five-hundred windmills and Portugal has three thousand. We have seen that the Portuguese had the practice of building a combined church and fortress. Starting with the main rotunda (octagonal or round), the church terminated in the watchtower.
    The construction of Newport Tower was a gigantic enterprise, considering the availability of material and manpower. Only a very strong motive could have inspired its builders. There are many octagonal and round churches in Portugal which could serve as prototypes to the Newport Tower.
    However, evidence strongly indicates that Miguel Corte-Real and his crew built the New port Tower to use as a church-watchtower in anticipation that Miguel’s oldest brother, Vasqueances, would come searching for him, as Miguel had done for Gaspar.
    As stated before, Dighton Rock is the primary evidence for the Corte-Real discovery of Narragansett Bay. Together with the anthropological and linguistic evidence, the Newport Tower constitutes another strong link in the Portuguese theory. One further link in the Portuguese chain of facts brings us to the archeological findings at Ninigret Fort.

    pilgrim chapter 9

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    Chapter 10
    Click on each photo for a larger view

    Outline of Fort Ninigret is characterized by five-sided bastions on three corners.
    Few people know of Fort Ninigret in Charlestown, Rhode Island. Yet, this intriguing structure has captivated the interest of scholars for many years because of its unique configuration and the open breech cannon and sword found nearby.
    Named after Ninigret, sachem of the Niantics, the fort is situated on the point of land facing Ninigret Pond, off State Route 2, half a mile west of Charlestown, a short distance from the ocean. Actually, all that remains of the old fort are the mound and some loose stones and earth from the original walls.
    However, its most striking characteristic is the outline maintained by the railing, marking off three-foot high mounds of the original fort. The fort is rectangular with the corners terminating in five-sided bastions, except for the one facing the water. It measures 152 feet long (from bastion to bastion) and 137 feet wide. The angles of the bastions are approximately 130 degrees. No one doubts that the style in which the fort is built clearly shows the influence of European civilization.

    Ninigret Statue in Watch Hill Rhode Island

    DUTCH THEORY: In 1858, 5. G. Arnold, in a footnote in his “History of the State of Rhode Island”, stated for the first time in print, that “the Dutch had two fortified trading posts on the South Shore of Narragansett in what is now Charlestown”. But he presented no proofs, and gave no references.
    Later historians followed Arnold’s theory without questioning its origin or basis until 1921, when Leicester Bradner, after reviewing all the documents concerning the activities of the Dutch West India Company in America since 1626, refuted vehemently Arnold’s theory. Bradner stated that the theory was conceived “with the naive credulity of an old style historian”. Then he concluded: “The facts I have presented are conclusive and their importance can only be altered by the discovery of new sources. On the present evidence, I consider it impossible that the Dutch owned or occupied the fort in Charlestown.”
    CANNON AND SWORD: In the following year (1922) new discoveries were made. A cannon, open breech type, a sword, and four skeletons were found near Ninigret Fort on the farm of T. L. Arnold (not related to S. G. Arnold) . The Dutch theory was again revived in regional historical circles. In 1932 William B. Goodwin decided to excavate at the ruins of the fort and defend once more the Dutch theory. In spite of all the efforts spent in reviewing the documents of the Dutch Company, he flatly admits that the “five-sided bastions are very unusual”, and that he could “find no such shaped bastions in any of the books on fortifications which I have been able to locate”.

    Open breech cannon found near the site of Fort Ninigret closely resembles 15th and 16th century cannons exhibited at the military museum in Lisbon.

    Open breech cannon (15th - 16th century) at the military museum in Lisbon closely resembles Ninigret cannon

    Sword found nearby Ninigret Fort. Its handle shows a significant similarity to that of the sword (XV - V\XVI century) in the historical museum of Angra, Terceira, Azores.

    Sword preserved in the historical museum of Angra, Terceira, Azores. Its handle shows a striking similarity to that of Ninigret Fort

    BLUE POTTERY: Goodwin, during his superficial excavation, found in the center of the fort a well four feet in diameter with three circular layers of field stone. He then dug to the depth of nine feet and found “several stones which showed signs of fire and to One side of which stones adhered a layer of clay.” He came to the conclusion that “those stones were out of a chimney which at one time or another had been erected in another place".
    He also found several archeological objects which he attributed without hesitancy, both to the Indians and the Dutch. Among these he obtained part of a plate dish made of blue pottery — which he called “our greatest find” — because it had on it the letter “R” written in blue. He believed that the “R” was the initial for Isaac de Rasier, secretary to the Dutch West India Company which had its head quarters in Manhattan (New York) . Of course, he was never aware that the “R” could very well be a part of Miguel Corte Real, who explored the Narragansett delta in 1502.
    In an effort to demonstrate that the blue and white pieces of pottery came from Holland, Goodwin consulted the experts who informed him that such pottery was Spanish in origin and could have been brought from that country during the Spanish occupation of Holland between 1545 and 1574.
    Many people, even today, mistakenly think that Portugal is a province of Spain, and therefore do not know that Portugal has blue and white pottery par excellence, considered the most beautiful blue tile murals that exist in Europe.
    METROPOLITAN MUSEUM: In his determination to defend the Dutch theory, Goodwin “with photographs made of the cannon and sword from all points of view”, went to New York City to consult with the foremost authorities on armor. Mr. Grancsay, curator of armor at the Metropolitan Museum gave him ‘‘his unquestioned opinion that the sword could well date back to the early 1500’s and declared the cannon to be a very early breechlock type. In fact, the cannon could go back to the 15th century.” There is no doubt that both pieces of armor were of European fabrication. And once more their Spanish origin was consider ed, forgetting, as usual, the possibility of their being Portuguese.
    PORTUGUESE THEORY: Up until now, there have been two theories concerning Fort Ninigret: (1) the Dutch, amid (2) the anti-Dutch theory. The latter, being negativistic, has been favored by the Yankee historians, realizing that they have no claim whatsoever on the Fort. Both groups have been watchful of each other to the point of not being able to envision any other theory.
    American historians find the five-sided bastions of Fort Ninigret very unusual and are unable to determine the origin of its configuration because they have no knowledge of the forts of Portugal, or those built by the Lusitanian navigators in other continents during the great period of the discoveries. If historians had the required knowledge, they would have very easily found that the Portuguese forts are characterized by four, five, and six-sided bastions.
    Any student of arms knows that the open- breech type cannon found at Ninigret was obsolete after 1540. Why do historians try to make us believe that such a cannon was used almost one century later by the Dutch or the British?
    Most striking is the similarity of the can non and sword now preserved by the Rhode Island Historical Society, in Providence, with the 15th and 1 6th century cannons and swords in existence at the Military Museum in Lisbon. Furthermore, if we examine Chinese and Japanese paintings depicting the enterprises of the Portuguese explorers in the Orient, we will see a great similarity between the handles of the Portuguese swords and that of the Ninigret sword.
    The Fort and its artifacts are significant because they demonstrate not only the presence of the Portuguese, but also their occupancy of the land. Ninigret Fort, together with all other evidence presented in the previous chapters, actually make Narragansett Bay a Portuguese Museum of Early American History.

    pilgrim chapter 10

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    Chapter 11
    Click on all photos for a larger view
    The Portuguese navigators made their voyages in progressive stages:

    • 1. Discovery
    • 2. Exploration
    • 3. Colonization

    Portuguese fisherman on the Grand Banks
    Discovery was the first step taken to find a new island or continent and report back to Prince Henry or the King of Portugal. Exploration confirmed the discovery and studied the conditions for settlement. Colonization began by leaving domestic animals on the new lands to be followed by men and women settlers.
    After the discoveries of Porto Santo (1419) Madeira (1420), and the Azores Islands (1431- 1439) — exploration revealed that they were never inhabited, but had excellent pasture lands. With that information, Prince Henry ordered to be taken to those islands, a variety of domestic animals, such as, cattle, hogs, sheep, horses, and goats (1432). This measure of casting domestic animals on the various islands of the Atlantic proved to be an intelligent step towards colonization.
    All the animals multiplied and grew in great numbers because of the climate and abundance of pasture. Soon the Azores Islands be came the “refueling” and trading stations of the navigators, when port of calls were made to obtain fresh water, milk, fruits, and meats. Because of its excellent natural harbor at Angra, the Island of Terceira became the “inter planetary station” for the navigators returning to Lisbon from America, Africa, or India. (Azores Arc of Navigation).
    The Portuguese policy of populating the North Atlantic islands with domestic animals before colonization, was repeated in other islands and lands in Africa, Brazil, and North America.
    NOT THE LAST: Gaspar and Miguel Corte Real were not the first Portuguese navigators to explore North America. Neither were they the last to come. The Corte Real brothers were not making voyages of discovery, but of exploration in preparation for the third stage: Colonization.
    The discovery of North America had al ready been made by their father in 1472, twenty years before Columbus arrived at the West Indies. Vasqueanes Corte Real, the oldest brother of Gaspar and Miguel Corte Real asked permission from King Manuel I to go in search of his two lost brothers, but he was denied a charter. However, João Alves Fagundes and Manuel Corte Real, son of Vasqueanes obtained a charter from King Manuel I (1520) to establish settlements in Newfoundland.
    LAND OF BACALHAUS (CODFISH): We have seen in the Cantino map (1502) that the territory of Newfoundland was shown to be on the eastern side of the Tordesillas demarcation line, that is, within the Portuguese hemisphere of discovery. Because of this, the Portuguese explored and colonized the north eastern coast of America for almost a century. Furthermore, it is evident from the decree of 1506 issued by King Manuel I and establishing a 10 percent (Dízimo) import tax on the codfish brought back from Newfoundland, that the voyages of the Portuguese to the Grand Banks were by then a long established practice.
    For thousands of years the sediment of the cold Labrador Current and the warm Gulf Stream formed very large submarine sand beds or banks, now called the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The Grand Banks are a five hundred mile stretch of shallow water off the southeast coast of Newfoundland. They begin about 100 miles from Cape Race at the south eastern tip of Newfoundland. They extend as far as 300 miles out into the Atlantic Ocean.
    They are known as one of the best fishing grounds in the world. Thousands of sea birds circle over the waters abounding with fish. The navigators knew very well that great flocks of sea birds were the best guide for locating schools of fish. We should note that the distance from the Azores (Santa Maria) to Lisbon (800 miles) is the same distance from the Azores (Flores) to the Grand Banks.
    COD OR BACALHAUS: Cod is one of the most important food fishes found in the northeastern shores of America. Because of its abundance, it gave its name to Cape Cod and to Newfoundland, once called the Land of Bacalhaus. The seal of colonial Massachusetts had on it a codfish, and today a gilded representation of a codfish hangs in the Massachusetts House of Representatives, (Resolution of March 17. l784). Codfish prefer the Grand Banks because of the ideal water temperature (40 - 50°F.) water depth (6-300 feet) . and the abundance of food supply (Crustaceans, Mollusks, and sea weed) provided by the Gulf Stream and Labrador Current.
    SABLE ISLAND: The sedimentation resulting from the con verging of the Labrador Current and the Gulf Stream formed, over the ages, a sand bank (Nova Scotian bank) from which emerged Sable Island. This island of sand is located (40°N. and 60°W) near the edge of the continental shelf, 100 miles from the Nova Scotian coast. It has the shape of a crescent moon, about 20 miles long and 1 mile wide. The island is composed of white sand dunes, with several fresh water ponds filled by the rain formed by the condensation of the warm atmosphere of the Gulf Stream with the cold air of the Labrador Currents. Fresh water can be found any where in the sand by digging to the depth of two feet. No trees or shrubs grow there, but it has an abundance of knee-deep grass.
    Sable Island is known to sailors as the “Graveyard of the Atlantic”. It lies on the North Atlantic shipping lane between North America and Europe, and because of long sub merged sand bars surrounding the island, more than 500 vessels have been shipwrecked there. Dense fog and irregularities of currents and winds further endanger navigation.
    Unimportant and treacherous as its seems today, Sable Island was chosen by the Portuguese navigators as a supply station. They placed on the Island the same type of domestic animals that they bred in the Azores. The Portuguese observed that Sable Island had several advantages:

    • (a) It was close to the codfish banks.
    • (b) It was longer than most Azorean islands.
    • (c) Fresh water was plentiful.
    • (d) Pasture was abundant.
    • (e) It was less rugged and cold than the continental coast because it was closer to Gulf Stream.

    For these reasons, Sable Island became a supply station for the Portuguese navigators
    RED BULLS: John Winthrop, the first Governor of Massachusetts Colony, in his “History of New England” (1630-1649) gives an account of John Rose’s description of Sable Island after he was forced to land there:
    The Island is 30 miles long, 2 miles broad in most places, a mere sand, yet full of fresh water ponds, etc. He (John Rose) saw about 800 cattle, small and great, all red. and the largest he ever saw - . .ª
    John Rose did not forward any theory as to the origin of those ‘‘800 cattle, small and great, all red, and the largest he ever saw”. But, he was not the first to note the existence of the red cattle on Sable Island.
    Samuel Champlain, the first French explorer of North America (1603) and founder and governor of Quebec (1633), reported in the first edition of his “Voyages” (1613) that: “The bullocks and cows (were) taken there (Sable Island) over 60 years ago by the Portuguese" i.e., prior to 1613 and therefore be fore 1553.
    However, before Champlain, an English man, Sir Humphrey Gilbert reported in con nection with his voyage to St. John in 1583 that: “Upon intelligence we had of a Portugal (during our abode in St. John) who was him self present, when the Portugal's (about 30 years past” i.e., before 1553) “did put into the same island both meat and swine, to breed, which were since exceedingly multiplied. This seemed unto us a very happy tidings to have on an island lying so near into the main, which we intend to plant upon, such store of cattle, whereby we might at all times conveniently be relieved of virtual, and served of store for breed”. Champlain and Gilbert clearly stated that the domestic animals on Sable Island were of Portuguese origin. The question now arises as to who brought these animals to Sable Island.

    Solar (manor) of Pinheiros in Barcelos (1448) Today it is a national monument.
    BARCELOS FAMILY: Besides the Corte Reais there were several other families from the Island of Terceira who were interested in the exploration and colonization of Newfoundland. One of the most important was the Barcelos family which worked on colonization for three generations.
    Pedro Pinheiro, descendant of one of the most noble families of Barcelos (Town — North of Oporto) migrated to Terceira in the last quarter of the 15th Century. (Because of his name Pinheiro (Pine) his family coat of arms contained a pine tree and golden pinecones.) In Terceira he was nicknamed Barcelos which later became part of his name.
    Under a charter granted by King John II (1492), Pedro Pinheiro de Barcelos made his first voyage to Newfoundland with his partner, João Fernandes Labrador (who gave the name to Labrador). When Pedro Pinheiro died in 1507, his son Diogo Pinheiro de Barcelos obtained from King Manuel I a charter (1508) allowing him to continue with the colonization begun by his father. Dr. Baptista de Lima of the Historical Institute of the Island of Terceira, revealed at the first International Congress of the History of the Discoveries (1960) important findings concerning Diogo’s colonization of the Barcelona Island (Sable Island) — named after Barcelos family.

    Chart of Bartolomeu 1560. Arrow indicates Barcelona Island

    Diogo had a brother, Afonso Pinheiro de Barcelos, who, according to the charter granted to them by the King, had equal rights (profits) and duties (expenses) in the colonization of the lands of Bacalhaus. However, because Afonso was not willing to participate in any of the expeditions, Diogo asked for a legal hearing on the matter so that he could obtain sole rights to the lands he had colonized. Five witnesses testified at that hearing (October 7, 1531) and all declared that they had seen on the Island of Barcelona: “Cattle, sheep, goats, and swine taken there by Diogo’s ships, and all animals were well fed and multiplied.” After the hearing, Afonso and his wife relinquished all the rights stated in the charter.
    In 1550, Manuel de Barcelos (son of Diogo, and grandson of Pedro de Barcelos) took with him more domestic animals and settlers to continue the colonization of the Barcelona Island. It is believed that this is the expedition referred to by Sir Humphrey Gilbert.
    Samuel de Champlain refers to other Portuguese settlements at Ninganis (derived from Enganos, called today Ingonish) on Cape Briton Island, English Harbor (Louisburg) and the Tor Bay area, (from Torre-fort) all on Nova Scotia. At Louisburg, the same type of open-breech cannon was found that was uncovered at Ninigret Fort. At the same place was also found an old anchor.
    CARTOGRAPHY OF SABLE ISLAND: Sable Island appears for the first time with the name of San João (St. John) on a map drawn by Pedro Reinel in 1502. The name of San João appears again on the maps made by Joao Freire in 1546. However, charts by Lopo Homem (1540 and 1554) called the Island, Fagunda Island (derived from Joao Fagundes) . The same name of Fagunda was adopted by the cartographers Andre Homem (1559) and Diogo Homem (1565).
    Some historians consider the Island of Santa Cruz on Pedro Reinel’s chart (1502) as the same Sable Island. In his later maps, Diogo Homem changed the name of Fagunda to Santa Cruz (1565)
    Today, we realize that it was no easy task for the early cartographers to accurately map the Northeastern Coast of America because of the many bays, harbors, and islands. To further complicate the work of cartographers, Sable Island varied in shape and size depending on the combined forces of the Labrador Current and Gulf Stream. Judging by John Rose’s description in 1633, Sable Island was wider and longer than it is today.
    Dr. Baptista de Lima found on Bartolomeu Velho’s chart a small island opposite the Nova Scotian coast with the name “Barcelona”. This island does not correspond to the of Sable Island. However, there are historical documents in Terceira referring to a colony on an island named “Barcelona” and such a name is found in the early cartography of Canada. Further attesting to the voyages of Barcelos family, we find in the early charts of Newfoundland:

    • Baía (bay) de Manuel Pinheiro
    • Rio (river) de Manuel Pinheiro
    • Angra (harbor) de Manuel Pinheiro
    • Terra (land) de Manuel Pinheiro

    Click on all photos for a larger view
    Barcelos Red Bull, Mirandês type

    Red Bulls (Ramo Grande, or large type) on the island of Terceira
    ORIGIN OF RED BULLS: Historical references clearly indicate that the cattle found on Sable Island are of Portuguese origin. To understand Rose’s amazement, we must now demonstrate that such un usually large, red bulls existed only in Portugal.
    Today if we visit the Island of Terceira, we will find large, red bulls (Ramo grande — “large type”) on the very land once owned by the Barcelos family. The breeding of this type of cattle is a specialty in this area of Terceira.
    This breed of cattle resulted from a hybrid obtained by crossing the red cattle, of Miranda (near Barcelos, Portugal), brought to Terceira by Pinheiro, and the red cattle of Alentejo (center of Portugal) . Both parent stocks were brought to Terceira during the period of colonization. This breed provided milk, meat, and farm tillage.

    Batalha da Salga or Battle of the Bulls (1581). Painting ordered made by Philip II of Spain or Philip I of Portugal.

    BATTLE OF THE BULLS: The red cattle has given the Island of Terceira a most unique page of its history. In 1580 Portugal lost her independence to Spain (until 1640) . In 1581 a Spanish fleet (2000 men) attempted to force the people of Terceira to obey the Spanish King. A native of the island gathered all the wild cattle and led them against the Spanish invaders, who were hurled into the sea at the horns of the Portuguese bulls. It was this remarkable Battle of the Bulls — Battle of Salga — which gave the origin to the Spanish proverb: Vienen con ganado, ganado somos!” (“If they come with bulls, horned we are! “

    Tourada à Corda (Bull fighting with a cord) or street bull fighting on the island of Terceira

    Of all the nine Azorean islands, it is only in Terceira that bull fighting is a favorite sport. Typically, bull fighting is done on the street by having a long rope tied around the bull’s neck. Usually the bulls used for the rope bull fighting are, of the Barcelos type. This is a most colorful and dangerous type of bull fighting

    Wild ponies living today on Sable island

    WILD PONIES OF SABLE ISLAND: Today Sable Island has a light house, a weather station, and 300 wild ponies. Recently an oil company has begun drilling on the island. The ponies are small, but hearty enough to resist the severity of the weather conditions.
    Mr. Buchanan in his “Early Canadian History” says: “They may be descendants of horses left there by the Portuguese.” We do not have any evidence that horses were brought to Sable Island by the Portuguese, but there is no indication that they were brought there by any other Europeans. The fact that it is certain the Portuguese brought cattle, sheep, and hogs to Sable Island leads us to conclude: That the wild ponies on Sable Island are of Portuguese origin until proven otherwise.

    pilgrim chapter 11

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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    BEFORE COLUMBUS BORN If Columbus could have foreseen how determined historians are to prove that he was not the first to discover America, he certainly would not have taken the trouble to make a single trip. Though we are two decades away from the 500th anniversary of Columbus’ first voyage to San Salvador (Antilles) in 1492, there are already plans for a big celebration. At the same time, during the next two decades, there will be an increasing number of books refuting Columbus as the first discoverer of the Americas.
    HISTORICAL FABRICATION: It was Columbus himself who first exaggerated the importance of his discovery. He was convinced he had landed in China and Japan. Not finding the expected riches, he misled the King and Queen of Spain into thinking that he had found great wealth in these islands.
    As the race to India intensified between Portugal and Spain, Columbus continued to persuade the Spanish sovereigns to support his voyages. As Columbus set out on his third voyage, Vasco da Gama was arriving in India (1498) . Columbus was so persuasive, that on his fourth and final voyage (1502) the Spanish sovereigns gave him a letter of introduction to Vasco da Gama in the hope that they would meet in India.
    When Europe finally realized that Columbus had failed to reach India, he fell into disgrace. Both Columbus’ self-propaganda and the competition between the Spanish and Portuguese crowns caused attention to be diverted from the Portuguese discovery of North America by privately financed voyages.
    Washington Irving was the first American writer to popularize the idea that Columbus was the first to discover America. (The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, 1828) . Actually, Protestant Americans had ignored Columbus until Irving’s book came along. The Anglo-Saxons had always played down any major accomplishment from the Catholic Latin countries. Fortunately, this attitude has been disappearing in the last few decades.
    Columbus never set foot on the land which is now called the United States. Yet, yielding to Italian - Americans, our largest immigrant group (25 million) , it is in this country that Columbus’ voyage is most widely commemorated
    COLUMBUS’ INFORMATION: It is irrelevant to involve ourselves in the question of whether Columbus was Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, or Jew. What is more important is our understanding of the prior information Columbus had before his voyages:

    • (a) He acquired his nautical knowledge in Portugal.
    • (b) For ten years he sailed in Portuguese caravels along the African coast.
    • (c) He married Filipa de Perestrelo (1479),daughter of the Governor of Madeira Islands.
    • (d) Only after his father-in-law died, leaving him access to maps and secret information about the lands to the west, did Columbus begin making plans for a voyage across the Atlantic.

    Columbus, however, underestimated the circumference of the globe by 4,000 miles. But the Portuguese mathematicians knew the actual distance, therefore King John II wisely declined (1482) to support Columbus’ plan to discover a western water route to India.
    NIGHT SAILING: It was a well-established rule that any navigator sailing in an unknown sea would anchor at night by putting the sails down so as not to risk being wrecked on a reef in the darkness. It was Professor David Tsukernik of the Soviet Geographic Society who first commented on the fact that Columbus’ ships traveled full speed day and night. More astonishing is that on the return trip (first voyage) Columbus navigated 300 miles more during the night than during the day. This seems foolhardy for a man who supposedly did not have any prior knowledge of the prevalent water and wind currents of the Atlantic.
    Some American scholars are pro-Columbus to the extent of claiming that Columbus knew of the favorable winds of the North Atlantic through ‘inspiration and instinct’’, thereby allowing him to sail day and night. How ridiculous can one be? The ‘‘genius’’ that American historians so quickly attribute to Columbus is actually a strong indication that Columbus must have had prior nautical information. Columbus was honest enough to admit that his nautical knowledge came from the Portuguese. The historians on the other hand, could learn much from Columbus himself.
    Las Casas, the chronicler who sailed with Columbus, wrote that they “navigated 700 leagues day and night because the Admiral had not expected to sight land sooner than 750 leagues west of the Canary Islands.” The last 50 leagues were sailed only during the day, Las Casas informs us. Noteworthy is the fact that the distance of 750 leagues is almost exactly the distance from the western islands of the Canary Archipelago, where the flotilla began its voyage, to the eastern islands of the Caribbean Sea.
    Las Casas also says that, while in Madeira, Columbus learned from the crew of a Portuguese ship that they were returning from a land further west. Moreover, Fernando Columbus states in his father’s biography that Columbus had previous information of the existence of land in the West Atlantic and even possessed a map “with chartered islands in this sea” (Caribbean.) Columbus learned celestial navigation from the Portuguese pilots. He was also taught to sail through the great circles of navigation (1480-1490) when returning from Africa: Arc of Mina, Arc of Azores, and Arc of Sargasso Sea. Before Columbus was born, the Portuguese sailors were already familiar with the water currents and winds which later brought him to the West Indies.
    We have already stated that, once the Portuguese navigators were locked in the Canary current and the North Equatorial Drift (Trade Winds) , they were practically forced to terminate their voyage at the West Indies or in South America. This is a conclusion that can be verified today with modern scientific methods of navigation.
    The more American historians study the epic of the discoveries, the more convinced they will become that Columbus learned all about the previous discoveries of the Portuguese and was not “self-taught”, as Professor Samuel Eliot Morison would like us to believe.
    PRIVATE ENTERPRISE: We have stressed before that the Corte Reais and other Portuguese navigators financed their own expeditions to the New World. They were not required to give a detailed report of their voyages to the king, as was the case in the voyages to Africa, India, and Brazil sponsored by the Portuguese crown. For similar reasons, Columbus kept a log which he was required to present to the Spanish monarchs.
    The Portuguese navigators to the New World were more preoccupied with discovery than writing about it. In fact, they usually kept their discoveries “top secret”. This explains why much of the coastline and many of the islands of the American Continent were known to the Portuguese navigators many years before they were first documented on logs or charts. The best example is the Cantino map (1502), taken secretly from Portugal, which shows Newfoundland, West Indies, and the Florida Peninsula, eleven years before Ponce de Leon arrived there.
    THE FOUR CAPES OF GOOD HOPE: The main objective of the Portuguese voyages was to find a water route around Africa to India. Every navigator hoped to pass that tip of Africa which would be properly named the Cape of Good Hope. This was accomplished by Bartolomeu Dias in 1488.
    During his voyage of circumnavigation Fernão de Magalhães rounded the second “Cape of Good Hope” in South America by passing the strait that today bears his name (Strait of Magellan) . He then sailed into the largest ocean in the world to which he gave the Portuguese name: Pacífico the search for the fourth “Cape of Good Hope” the Portuguese failed to find a passage to India.
    From the Danes, the Portuguese learned that the geographic configuration of Lapland took the shape of the third “Cape of Good Hope” on the north of Europe and that only the frozen sea prohibited passage to the East. It was only in 1660 that the Portuguese navigator David Melgueiro succeeded in his amazing voyage across the Arctic Ocean, down to the coast of eastern China to India.
    TWENTY YEARS BEFORE COLUMBUS: We should know that Christian I of Denmark was first cousin to Prince Henry the Navigator. (Their mothers were both from the Royal House of England). Thus, by 1448 we find a Danish navigator in the Portuguese Court.
    From the Danes the Portuguese tried to learn about the fourth “Cape of Good Hope”. The search for a “Cape of Good Hope” persisted for many years in the Corte Reais’ quest for the North American passage to India.
    The Danish historian, Sophus Larsen, in his book “The Discovery of North America Twenty years Before Columbus” (1925) presented evidence that João Vaz Corte Real made a voyage of discovery (1472) to Greenland and Newfoundland with two Danish pilots named Pining and Pothorst. For the discovery of the fourth “Cape of Good Hope” João Vaz Corte Real was given (1474) the governorship of Angra (Island of Terceira) as a reward.
    SEVENTY YEARS BEFORE COLUMBUS: The period of the Portuguese discoveries is one of the most amazing studies of universal history because even today we can experience the same navigational conditions that existed 500 years ago.
    Admiral Gago Coutinho sailed 31,000 miles into the Atlantic aboard a caravel, similar to those of the 15th century. On these extensive voyages he made observations of water currents, winds and stars with modern navigational instruments. In 1952, he wrote: “Childish conclusions are easily dispelled by anyone navigating under sail, and seeing for himself, as I have for the last sixty years there are proofs that the Portuguese pilots who sailed the Sargasso Sea prior to 1446 — before the birth of Columbus — had the experience of sailing to the American coast before 1472. Based on my technical and nautical experience, I find the Corte Reais to be the undisputable discoverers of America.”
    PORTUGUESE CHART OF 1424: In 1954, Coimbra University published a book on The Nautical Chart of 1424, uncovered in the William H. Robinson London Collection, by Professor Armando Cortesão This map was bought for a large sum of money by the Minnesota Library and placed in the James Ford Bell Collection. This Portuguese chart shows the Antilles or West Indies.
    In 1965 there was much excitement about the so-called Vinland Map published by Yale University. This map is important because it shows portions of North America, but the map has no date on it. The date has been estimated to be 1440 at the earliest. The Portuguese chart has the date 1424 written very clearly on the map. No one as yet believes that the Vikings made the Vinland map. It is yet to be proven that this map was not copied from older Portuguese maps.
    NATIONAL MONUMENT: Dighton Rock should have been made a national monument long ago.

    • First, because there is no other monument in the United States that has merited the attention of so many scholars and stimulated so many theories.
    • Secondly, it should be properly protected and preserved for further study, using new scientific techniques.
    • Thirdly, because the U. S. Secretary of the Interior would be able to give research grants to specialists, not only to study the inscriptions, but also to excavate in the vicinity of Dighton Rock. The State of Massachusetts alone, with its limited funds, cannot project the national importance of Dighton Rock.
    • Fourth, it must be emphasized that Dighton Rock is not a Portuguese monument. It is an American monument. It should be preserved and cared for as such — a very important cornerstone of American history.
    • Filth and most important, it is a document in rock — the only witness to the discovery of our great nation, the first chapter of American History.

    DIGHTON ROCK AND THE PLANETS: With the exploration of outer space we have taken over where the Portuguese left off. The United States has been in a race to the moon with Russia, just as centuries ago Portugal and Spain were racing to India. The courage in face of the unknown is a characteristic of both the Portuguese explorers and the American astronauts.
    In the XV Century the Portuguese were the first Europeans to make transatlantic voyages and be able to return home because they had invented the caravel. Today Americans are the first to go to the moon and return because they have developed the Apollo rockets. Just as long ago the Portuguese planted landmarkers in the lands they discovered, the astronauts will place on the planets, planet-markers with the American National Symbols.

    IN SEARCH OF THE "FIFTH CAPE OF GOOD HOPE." The American Astronaut's footprints in the soil of the moon and the American flag.
    THE FIFTH “CAPE OF GOOD HOPE”: Somewhere deep into outer space, beyond the reach of the sextant and the astrolabe, blown by solar winds and bounded by falling stars is the mystical celestial entity, the “Cape of Good Hope”, the fifth, a double symbol of the conquerable unconquerable. The explorers of the space age — the sailors of the stars, the astronauts, the reincarnation of the Portuguese spirit of exploration, — will round this mystical cape as they did the others. And what will they see beyond this Cape — who knows? They may even meet The Navigator, face to face.

    pilgrim chapter 12

  18. #18
    MacieLuxcitânia está desconectado Miembro graduado
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    01 ago, 10
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    Re: Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock

    Libros antiguos y de colección en IberLibro
    Half Portuguese first.Half english second.Why? He was Portuguese , not an english!
    The description «... The Prince was half English and half Portuguese...» is , obviously , a anglo-saxon one , thus pointing , in a subliminar way , the "supremacy" of the anglo-saxon over the Portuguese gene .
    Always the same Arrogant way , always trying to steal the Credits , even speaking about people from other Nations .

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