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Tema: Orange blossom going, cinnamon returning

  1. #21
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    The river and the sea: bridges, ports and lighthouses
    Manila has always looked out over the sea, and this is its raison d'être. Its livelihood depended on the ships that came and went. It is a maritime city. Its river has both limited and united it.

    It was always difficult for large ships to tie up near the city, and for this reason Cavite was used for centuries as the port of the Philippine capital. Sandbanks built up at the river mouth, making navigation dangerous; channelling dikes were built in the mid 18th century. Much later, in 1881, the first project for a port in Manila was drawn up. The latest advances in methods and techniques for port construction were used in it.
    The Pasig River and its creek channels are the great communication routes for Manila. The islands they form also give definition to the different districts that are growing up, while the river separates the Intramuros precinct from its northern banks. Bridges connect all parts of the city. At the end of the 19th century, the Port Works Board draws up a general plan for channelling the waterways in order to improve fluvial communications.
    Until well into the 19th century, the "Puente Grande" was the first and only bridge to be built. After the 1863 earthquake, a new bridge replaced it in 1875. This had eight arches - the two middle ones were built of iron - and was named the "Puente de España". The second to be built was called the Clavería bridge.
    This was a suspension bridge and was a landmark on the urban landscape of Manila; it linked Quiapo with the Arroceros district and was opened to the public in 1852. A third construction, the Ayala bridge was built in two separate sections; it crossed the river at Convalecencia island and was opened in 1880.
    Marine traffic in the bay increased heavily during the second half of the 19th century. It was at this time that the construction of lighthouses began. Examples of this are the San Nicolás lighthouse and those built on Corregidor Island, all of which were constructed in accordance with the latest advances in European technology.

    The "Puente de España" over the Pasig River in Manila. Casto Olano in Colección de planos... 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid After the destruction of the "Puente Grande" , a project was drawn up for an eight-arch combined construction: the two central arches had wider spans, were low, and were built from iron, the remaining six arches being built from quarried stone.


    The "Concepción" portion of the Convalecencia bridge in Manila. Eduardo López Navarro in Colección de planos correspondientes a varias de las construcciones realizadas o proyectadas por la Inspección General de Obras Públicas de las Islas Filipinas. 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid The Ayala bridge, as it was also known, crossed the river in two independent sections that converged on Convalecencia Island. Each of these sections was formed by three low arches and a lower platform, all of which were timber-built.


    View of the "Puente de España", built after the 1863 earthquake. Álbum fotográfico... End of the 19th century. BN The metallic parts of the "Puente de España" - the central arches, the balustrades and the candelabra - were imported from France, this being organized by José Echeverría, the Spanish engineer posted there.


    View of the suspension bridge in the city of Manila. Álbum fotográfico... Late 19th century. BN The suspension bridge was constructed by private enterprise which operated it on a toll basis. The project was drawn up by the French engineer M. Gabaud.


    The Ayala bridge between Convalecencia island and the Concepción district collapsed in this year. La Ilustración Española y Americana, 1890. BN Although scarcely ten years had passed since it was opened, by 1889 the Ayala bridge was in a dangerous condition. That year, the section between the island and the San Miguel district collapsed, and only a few months later the Concepción section followed suit.

    Situation plan of the port and arsenal of Cavite. 1832 MN During the 18th century, the port of Cavite, close to Manila, was preferred as an anchorage for ships reaching the city, since it had a greater depth of water.


    Project for the port of Manila. José García Morón. Revista de Obras Públicas, 1889-1890 During the 1880's, a greater number of efforts were made to provide Manila with an exterior port that would match its trading, economic and political importance.


    New project for an artificial port for the city of Manila. José García Morón. 1890. AHN Generally speaking, the proposal consisted of creating a sheltered area for ships to anchor in. In addition, large areas would be set aside for the construction of sheds and warehouses to store produce and merchandise awaiting shipment to Europe and America.


    Project for a battery on the south wall. Mariano de Goicoechea. 1834. SHM Throughout its history, the defence of Manila was a constant cause of concern which gave rise to continual fortifications works on the seaboard front.


    Section of the Pasig River close to the Manila city walls. 19th century. SHM During the 19th century, a great deal of effort was devoted to the channelling and straightening of the Pasig river estuary and the defence of its banks.


    Channelling dikes to counter the sediments that silted up the Pasig mouth. 1757. SGE During the 18th century, dredging works and campaigns were carried out to clear the accumulation of sand at the river mouth, which was a hindrance to navigation and entry into the river port.


    View of the Pasig River and the stone-built "Puente Grande", before the 1863 earthquake. Fernando Brambila. Collection of drawings and engravings made on the Malaspina Expedition. 1789-1794. MN Built in the first half of the 17th century, and until the suspension bridge was opened, the "Puente Grande" was the only bridge crossing the Pasig River. In 1814, the wooden roadway was replaced with masonry arches.


    The "Punta Santiago" lighthouse (Batangas) which provided signalling in the strait between Luzon and the island of Mindanao. Magin Pers y Pers and Guillermo Brockmann. La Ilustración Española y Americana. José Fernández. 1891. BN In 1890, the new catadioptric lighthouse was opened to assist navigators by illuminating this unavoidable route leading from the south and the Pacific towards the China Sea.


    Project for a metallic lighthouse on the sandy promontory of San Nicolás at Manila Bay. José Echeverría in Colección de planos... 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid The majority of the lighthouses built in the Philippines were of traditional construction, although some were also built with a metallic structure in consonance with the latest trends in European engineering.


    Watchtower on Corregidor Island at the entrance to Manila Bay. Ildefonso de Aragón. First half of the 19th century. SHM Although the lighthouses constructed in the Philippines were of varied types, they were all provided with living quarters for the tower keepers and deposits for supplies of drinking water, which were essential in isolated places with difficult access.


    Project drawn up for a lighthouse on Corregidor Island. Mariano de Goicoechea. 1830. SHM Corregidor Island occupied a position of importance at the entrance to Manila Bay, and for this reason it was equipped with signalling lights from very early on.


    THE RIVER AND THE SEA: BRIDGES, PORTS AND LIGHTHOUSES

  2. #22
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    Re: Orange blossom going, cinnamon returning

    Railways, waterways, stone ways
    The concern for introducing improvements into urban life concentrates on infrastructures: the provision of a fresh-water supply, and the establishing of rail and tram lines.

    Spanish military engineers, and in later years the civil engineers, worked in the Philippines and applied to the greater part of their works the most advanced construction techniques available at the time, leaving a significant legacy of their presence behind them in the Philippines.
    The General Plan for Railways was drawn up in 1876 for the island of Luzon, and included a network totalling 1,730 kilometers. A 192 Km stretch of track was constructed between Manila and Dagupan. This operated a regular service as from 1892. The most outstanding works carried out on the railway system were the bridge over the great Pampanga River and the building of Tutubán Station, in the Tondo district.
    The tremendous growth of the city of Manila led the administration to contemplate, in 1878, the setting up of a public transport network. Five tramway lines would link the city with its outskirts.
    The project for public supply of fresh water to the city dates from the early 18th century. Before this, the city had to be content with a fresh water supply based on cisterns. In 1867, the town council decides to take on the challenge of a project to supply fresh water to the whole of the city. In 1882 the first public water fountain gushed forth its waters, and shortly after this, the technology of the times was successful in providing Manila with a fresh water supply from sources up-river.
    Tutuban station on the Manila - Dagupan railway line. Revista de Obras Públicas. 1898 This had a distinct Hispano-Philippine flavour. It was built from masonry faced with brickwork at ground level, the upper storey being made of wood. It had galvanized iron roofing and an overhanging verandah, made from the same material, surrounded the building at first-floor level.



    Bridge over the great Pampanga River, on the Manila - Dagupan line. Revista de Obras Públicas. 1898 Despite the difficulties involved in its construction resulting from problems in laying the foundations, this bridge with its lattice-work beams was one of the major achievements of Spanish engineering in the Philippines.


    Project for a railway station at Iligan. 1898. SHM After the opening of the Manila - Dagupan railway, the 1890's witnessed the promotion of studies and projects for new railway lines on Luzon and on other islands in the archipelago.

    General plan for railways on the island of Luzon. Eduardo López Navarro. 1876. AHN The General Plan contemplated the construction of the lines considered to be most essential. Amongst these were the Manila - Dagupan line, and the Manila - Taal line, which were classified as being the first to be built, and as soon as possible.


    Plan of Manila with the general layout of the different tramways. León Monpour, approved by Manuel Ramírez Bazán, the inspector. 1878-1879. AHN In 1878, the concession for constructing five tramways in Manila and its suburbs was approved. The plan included a main station at San Gabriel and the crossing of the river via the "Puente de España"

    First- and second-class passenger carriages for public transport on the Manila tramway. León Monpour. 1878 AHN


    Project for the supply of fresh water to Manila. Genaro Palacios y Guerra in Colección de planos correspondientes a varias de las construcciones realizadas o proyectadas por la Inspección General de Obras Públicas de las Islas Filipinas. 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid This was one of the most outstanding achievements of the Spanish engineers in the Philippines, and was one of the first in which steam engines were used to raise the waters.

    Map showing the project for the installation of telegraph lines. 1868. AHN The first telegraph lines were established on the archipelago as from the second half of the 19th century; these were linked to the international network and connected the islands with the mother country.


    General plan for the supply of fresh water to Manila. Genaro Palacios y Guerra. 1874-1875. AHN This comprises the distribution layout from Sampaloc, on the outskirts of the city, as far as the Intramuros precinct and the districts near the port. Within the capital itself, subterranean sections were combined with others at ground level.



    Project to supply the royal fortress of Santiago with water. Narciso de Eguía. 1888. SHM Francisco de Carriedo y Peredo, a native of Santander and mayor of the capital, became its benefactor and patron when he left a bequest of ten thousand pesos to the city; this legacy paid for the installation of a water supply to military barracks and institutions.


    RAILWAYS, WATERWAYS, STONE WAYS

  3. #23
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    Re: Orange blossom going, cinnamon returning

    Markets and factories
    Manila was basically a trading city, an international market living in the background of the exchange of products between Asia, America and Europe.

    The importance of this trading activity was visible in the city itself, and a place was set aside for a specific market: the Parian. The Parian disappeared in the 18th century, and in the opposite side of the river was then built the "Alcaicería" of San Fernando, a very distinctive octagonal-shaped building which had never been seen before in Spanish colonial architecture.
    Another parian, that of San José, was established as a delimited sector in the south-east of Intramuros; its streets and shops were organized around a central water fountain. Later on, in the 19th century, and as a result of urban growth, specific markets were established in some of the surrounding villages which were later to become districts of Manila.
    The tobacco monopoly, which was directed by the public Treasury, was a source of wealth in the 19th century; it employed a team of engineers and architects who created an important infrastructure network: warehouses, factories,storehouses, etc. The tobacco and cigar factories became one of the principal local industries.
    In the 19th century, growing trading activity and the emergence of industry gave rise to the construction of new buildings in the city. The "Real Estanco", the tobacco factories constructed in Meisic, in Tondo and in Arroceros; the sugar refinery in Manila, the wine administration, the public slaughterhouse in Dulumbayan, and the La Quinta and Divisoria markets, are examples of some of the industrial and trading buildings constructed.

    Project for the repair and reformation of the "La Quinta" market. Félix Rojas. 1878. AHN The central market of Manila was in the suburb of Quiapo and was known as "La Quinta". This was connected with the Arroceros district, which is where the rice market was situated, by a suspension bridge which was built in 1852.

    The Meisic tobacco factory. Casto Olano. 1875. AHN This tobacco factory, also called "el Fortín", was converted into a barracks. New offices were built to house the captaincy general and the offices of the Staff.

    The Meisic tobacco factory. Mariano Vals. 1885. SHM Tobacco production was the stronghold of the colonial economy; this industry was brought to the Philippines from Yucatan by the Augustinian monks. In the 19th century, the Arroceros district was the home of the Manila tobacco factory and warehouses, which provided jobs for 8,000 women and 1,500 men.


    Plan of the "Alcaicería" of San Fernando. 1756. SGE This market was situated at the river mouth and on the right bank of the Pasig, opposite Intramuros, and it was here that the Chinese sampans unloaded their produce. The octagonal ground plan of the building is unique among the buildings constructed in the Philippines.


    The Royal Tobacco Factory in Manila and the Tobacco Revenue Offices. Domingo de la Cruz González. 1784-1785. AGI Even from early times, the Spanish administration was interested in all aspects of the production and trading of tobacco, and this became a state monopoly in 1780. The tobacco revenue office remained in force until 1898.


    Tobacco warehouse in the village of Lallo, Cagayan province, to the north of Manila. Juan Mendoza y Grajales. 1847. AGI The richest tobacco-growing area on the island of Luzon was the Cagayan river basin, to the north of the island which, together with the Isabela area also in the north, were the greatest producers of tobacco on the archipelago.


    The Manila market, known as the Parian. Juan Francisco de Ravenet y Bunel. Collection of drawings and engravings made on the Malaspina Expedition. 1789-1794. MN This is the only known drawing of the Chinese quarter in Manila, before its demolition. Many of the people included in this drawing were painted individually by the artist himself.


    Plan of the San José "Alcaicería" in Manila. Tomás Sanz. 1783. SGE A new Parian or San José "Alcaicería" was constructed between San Francisco and the monastery of cloistered monks, in order to house Chinese trading activity.


    Plan of the San José "Alcaicería". Tomás Sanz. 1783. SGE The governor, José Basco y Vargas, was responsible for the construction of the new Parian, in accordance with the demands made by the town council for a new building after the demolition of the old one which was situated on the other river bank.


    The market at the Tondo district boundary. Juan Mendoza y Grajales. 1851. SHM The highly populated district of Tondo was a necessary stopping point en route to Malabón, and an active trading centre which was connected to Manila by navigable river routes, and it was this factor that made it a focal point for the exchange of merchandise.


    Project for a market with bazaar in the Tondo district. Juan Mendoza y Grajales. 1851. SHM The "Canal de la Reina", which runs through the middle of the Tondo district, also served as a route for communications and the transport of merchandise traded in its markets: rice from Cavite, fruit and poultry from Batangas and Laguna, and cattle from the Visayan islands, amongst others.



    MARKETS AND FACTORIES

  4. #24
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    Re: Orange blossom going, cinnamon returning

    Teaching and health care


    For a long time, health care, welfare and teaching tasks were carried out by the religious orders.

    Thanks to the zeal and initiative of the Dominicans, Jesuits, Augustinians and Franciscans, a number of teaching centres and hospitals were built and established. In the 19th century, the concern for public education led to the creation of ordinary schools, the administration being responsible for the projects and building works undertaken for these.
    In 1571 the Jesuits built the "Real Colegio de San José" and in 1594 the Franciscans founded the "Colegio de Santa Potenciana", both of which were established by order of the king, Philip II, who provided the necessary funding for these. The "Colegio de San Juan de Letrán" and the "Colegio de Santa Isabel" were founded in the first third of the 17th century to take in orphans and the destitute of Manila, while the Dominicans founded the "Colegio de Santa Catalina de Sena" with private donations, this latter becoming an Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses in the 19th century.
    In 1611, the Dominicans founded the "Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario" which was the founding body of the University of Santo Tomás. In 1680, this University, which already awarded degrees,was granted the title of Royal and Pontifical.
    One of the first buildings to be erected in Manila, around 1564 and by the Franciscans, was the "Hospital Real". In 1587 the Dominicans founded an important medical centre in Tondo, the "Hospital de San Gabriel", which was demolished in 1744. The "Hospital de Santa Ana", founded in 1596 by the Franciscan Juan Clemente, was later to become the "Hospital de San Juan de Dios" and the "Hospital de San Lázaro", and is the oldest hospital in the whole of the Orient.

    Project for the reconstruction of the Manila Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses. Alejandro Olano. 1894. AHN In the 19th century, the Santa Catalina de Sena school, founded in the late 17th century, was converted into the Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses. It had to undergo certain modifications to adapt it to this new use.


    Project for the reconstruction of the Manila Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses. Alejandro Olano. 1894. AHN

    Project for the reconstruction of the Manila Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses. Alejandro Olano. 1894. AHN The reconstruction of this building followed the Rules for the construction of buildings in Manila, which were established as a result of the earthquakes of 18 and 20 July 1880 and constituted a building code which was a pioneer in its field.


    The "Hospital of San Juan de Dios". Luis Céspedes in Colección de planos... 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid After the hospital was rebuilt and equipped with two hundred and fifty beds, it was run by the Sisters of Charity.


    The "Hospital of San Juan de Dios". Luis Céspedes in Colección de planos correspondientes a varias de las construcciones realizadas o proyectadas por la Inspección General de Obras Públicas de las Islas Filipinas. 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid Founded in 1596 by the Brotherhood of Mercy, it was rebuilt after being destroyed in the 1863 earthquake.


    School of San Juan de Letrán, in Manila. AGI This was housed in a good, stone-built edifice, and was the first building to be seen on entering the city from the Santo Domingo quay.


    Assembly room of the Santo Tomás university in Manila. Álbum de vistas de la Universidad y Colegios... 1887. BN The King, Philip IV, became the protector of this university and arranged for a papal bull to transform it from college into university, the first in Asia. In 1620, it opened its doors as a public teaching centre.


    Library of the Santo Tomás university in Manila. Álbum de vistas de la Universidad y Colegios... 1887. BN This was created at the request of the archbishop of Manila in 1610, and before long it had its own printing press which had been imported from Europe.


    Rear façade of the Manila Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses. Exposición de Madrid. 1887. BN


    Interior patio of the Manila Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses. Exposición de Madrid. 1887. BN


    Interior of the Manila Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses. Exposición de Madrid. 1887. BN


    San José College, Manila University. The entrance to the pharmacy and medicine classrooms. Álbum de vistas de la Universidad y Colegios... 1887. BN


    Façade of the school of San Juan de Letrán, in Manila. Álbum de vistas de la Universidad y Colegios... 1887. BN This was founded between 1830 and 1850 by Juan Gerónimo Guerrero, a friar. It belonged to the Dominican order and had a small church of the same name.


    Façade of the San José school. Álbum de vistas de la Universidad y Colegios... 1887. BN This was founded by Philip II in 1585. It was closed during the 17th century, but in 1777 it was reopened and resumed its function as a teaching centre.


    Project for a school in Bulacón. Luis del Rosario y Rivas. 1893. AHN In the Philippines, public buildings changed their use with certain regularity. In this case, an old building was reformed in order to convert it into a public school.


    Project for a school in the town of Vigan, in Ilocos Sur. Ramón La Hermosa in Colección de planos... 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid


    TEACHING AND HEALTH CARE

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    Re: Orange blossom going, cinnamon returning

    Libros antiguos y de colección en IberLibro
    Philippines is not only Manila
    Cebu, the great capital of the south, Cavite, the port of Manila, Vigan, with its typical urban layout, Zamboanga, with its fort, Nueva Segovia, Nueva Cáceres...

    At the end of the 16th century, with few exceptions of any significance, almost the whole Philippine archipelago, which was divided into twelve provinces, each governed by their respective lord mayors, was now part of the Spanish Crown possessions.
    Internal communications were difficult as a result of the country's particular geography, which meant that the islands were somewhat disconnected from one another and their cities, which were little more than villages, were isolated urban centres.
    The Spanish population on the islands was low until the mid-19th century, and this meant that intense urban planning work could not be undertaken in the Philippines. However, the Spaniards founded other cities following a common model, although these were treated with less importance than the capital.
    Cebu (1565) was the first city to be founded by the Spaniards in the Philippines. Legazpi appointed the mayors and the spiritual mission was left in the hands of the Augustinian friars. The most outstanding buildings are the Cathedral and the "Basílica del Santo Niño", which became the shrine for the image which was left there by Magellan and which was later recovered by Legazpi.
    Sited on Manila Bay, the city of Cavite was used as a fortified point for defending the capital. A dockyard was established there for shipbuilding. Its fortress, the San Felipe castle, was built between 1609 and 1616.
    Some of the island cities were fortified, as in the case of Iligan to the north, and Zamboanga in Mindanao, with its "Nuestra Señora del Pilar" fort; others founded in the 16th century, such as Nueva Cáceres in Camarines, which became the episcopal see, and Nueva Segovia, have long since disappeared; others such as Vigan still preserve their typical urban layout and features.
    The San Pedro fort in Cebu. Relación de las Islas Filipinas by Fernando Valdés Tamón. 1739. Biblioteca del Palacio Real The first Spanish fort to be built in the Philippines was constructed in Cebu in order to defend the town of San Miguel, founded by Legazpi in 1565. In 1738, the San Pedro fort still had its original isosceles triangle shape.


    The town of Cebu in 1880. SHM At the end of the 19th century, Cebu was an unpaved town with a spacious and well ordered street layout; its buildings were mainly of a rustic type but there were also important constructions such as the Cathedral, the Augustinian monastery and the Government house.


    House of the general Government of the Visayan islands, in Cebu. Ramón La Hermosa in Colección de planos... 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid The Visayan islands are scattered between Luzon and Mindanao; the largest of these are Bohol, Leyte, Panay and Cebu. This was where Legazpi landed in 1565 and where over a period of time general Spanish rule over these islands was established.


    Ground plan of the Cathedral planned for Cebu. Juan de Ciscara. 1719. AGI The diocese of Cebu was created in 1595, at the same time as those created for Nueva Segovia and Nueva Cáceres. Tradition has it that the Cathedral, which was completed at the end of the 18th century, was the resting place for the cross planted by Magellan on his arrival at the island.


    Plan of Cebu in 1841. MN Cebu, which was situated on the west coast of the island of Cebu, was the first Spanish enclave and had a magnificent port which was protected from the wind by the nearby islands of Mactán and Opón.


    Fort of "Nuestra Señora del Pilar" in Zamboanga, as it was in 1719. Juan de Ciscara. 1719. AGI The San José fort in Zamboanga - later renamed "Nuestra Señora del Pilar"- was built in 1635 and was the most important on the island of Mindanao. It was demolished in the 17th century and rebuilt in 1718 as part of the defence system of the Visayan islands.


    Zamboanga and its surrounding area. SHM Tandag, Iligan and Zamboanga were the first three Spanish redoubts constructed on Mindanao, an island whose Moslem population carried out frequent attacks on the neighbouring Visayan islands.


    Plan of Jolo. J. Castro. 1881. SHM Jolo was the former residence of the sultans of this island, which historically was a focal point for piracy besides having a hostile Moslem presence. In 1876 it was taken by the Spaniards, who built the fort of Alfonso XII and set up a military government on the island.


    Plan of Iligan. 1898. SHM On Mindanao, the southernmost island in the archipelago, the Spaniards only managed to control some points along the coast. In Iligan, to the north, a fortress was built in the first third of the 17th century, and the town grew up around this.


    The port and point at Cavite, with their fortifications in 1659. AGI Cavite was built on a narrow sandy tongue of land. Early in the 17th century the castle of San Felipe was built here to defend the harbour mouth.

    The town of Cavite, and the San Felipe Castle. Richard Carr. 1663. AGI Over the years, the growth of the unstable sandy arrow-shaped land spur on which Cavite was built left the original fort of San Felipe removed from the sea, making the construction of a new platform equipped with artillery necessary.


    Plan of the port and waterfront at Cavite, drawn up at the orders of Fernando Valdés Tamón. 1730. SGE During the 18th century, the river port at Manila had insufficient water depth to permit large ships such as the Acapulco galleon from entering and leaving, and so they anchored at Cavite, where there was a shipyard for ship construction and repair.


    Project for the defence of the town of Cavite drawn up by Francisco Sabatini. Circa 1765. SGE

    Parish church in Cavite. Luis Céspedes in Colección de planos correspondientes a varias de las construcciones realizadas o proyectadas por la Inspección General de Obras Públicas de las Islas Filipinas. 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid During the second half of the 19th century, the Philippine city which looked most European was Cavite. It boasted excellent buildings made of stone, the most outstanding of these being the so-called "casas reales", and some churches.


    Project for a cementery in Cavite. Tomás Cortés. 1841. SHM Up until the 19th century, Cavite was a strategic point of the first order as witnessed by the fact that all attacks on the capital were aimed first at this town.


    PHILIPPINES IS NOT ONLY MANILA

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