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Tema: Old Portuguese Ruins in Southern Rhodesia

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    Old Portuguese Ruins in Southern Rhodesia

    OLD PORTUGUESE RUINS IN SOUTHERN RHODESIA (TODAY ZIMBABWE)

    OLD PORTUGUESE RUINS IN SOUTHERN RHODESIA (TODAY ZIMBABWE)*
    Written by Manuel Simoes Alberto (of the "Sociedade de Estudes de Mozambique")
    It was made known recently by the “Rhodesia Herald” , of Salisbury, that the ruins of an old Portuguese Fort, located on the banks of the Angwa river, had been declared a National Monument, and placed under the control of the “Natural and Historical Monuments and Relics Commission” of Southern Rhodesia.
    This led the author of this communication, based on a Portuguese Map published in 1889, to locate by approximation the areas of the places where there once existed similar forts built by the Portuguese in the territory of Southern Rhodesia. He considered worthy of historic interest two forts which should have existed in an area between the towns of Shabani and Fort Victoria, another which he locates in the ‘TATI CONCESSION”, and a fourth fort which should be sought – (if that has not yet been done) – a few miles from Bulawayo. If these forts, their ruins or simply their traces, have not yet been discovered, his opinion is that it would be interesting to investigate their existence, and if it were known, to consider them likewise National Monuments and to place then under the control of the “Natural and Historical Monuments and Relics Commission’ of Southern Rhodesia.
    The Salisbury newspaper, the “Rhodesia Herald”, in its issue of the 14th November, 1952, published the following news item, which aroused great interest among the Portuguese of Mozambique who devote themselves to historic study – “An ancient Portuguese fort, which may have been the site where the Portuguese missionary, Father Silveira was martyred in 1561, has been proclaimed a National Monument and has been placed under the control of the ‘Natural and Historical Monuments and Relics Commission’.”



    The “Rhodesia Herald” explains that the fort is to be found near the Angwa river, on Two Tree Hill – (Extension No.2 Farm) – near one of the banks of that river and close by old alluvial gold prospecting grounds. It further explains that the road from Salisbury to Chirundu, about 110 miles from Salisbury, passes less than seven miles south – west of this fort, and that there are more ruins of old Portuguese forts in the vicinity of the Angwa river, but that this is perhaps the only one in a good state of preservation.
    I do not share the opinion that the missionary Silveira was killed in 1561 in the fort now placed under the control of the ‘Natural and Historical Monuments and Relics Commission’ of Southern Rhodesia, seeing that there are coeval chronicles and documents of the event that contradict the legends of the natives now living in the region. Our aim in this modest contribution is not to clear up that detail. Our purpose is mainly to try and determine by approximation the places where there still exists ruins or traces of other Portuguese constructions, built by groups of Portuguese explorers or traders, who during the period between the 17th and the middle of the 19th century, proceeded from the coast zone which is still Portuguese today, to the inhospitable and unknown interior which was to become Southern Rhodesia.
    The Rhodesias are relatively new nations, whose occupation and land – clearing history is the continuation of the history written by the Portuguese since the end of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century in this part of the African continent. Hence we think that any help in throwing light on the past of these territories, destined to have a great future, is of mutual interest to the nations that are today our neighbours and friends. After we took part in the 1950 Congress of the South African Association for the Advancement of Science in Salisbury, and after having visited the Archives of which Mr. Hiller is the Chief Archivist, we sent him the tracing of a very interesting and rare map, of which there are only two specimens in Mozambique, one of them being private property. We made tracings from the latter, and one of them will be used by us as the basis to this present contribution.
    That map was published by the Portuguese Cartographic Services in 1889, and it locates, with an approximate accuracy for the cartographic methods of the time, several villages now vanished, as well as the whole hydrographic net of the Rhodesias and Mozambique, the main mountain ranges, the division of the old Portuguese districts and the location of the main settlements of the different native tribes. The map was drawn by Portuguese cartographers, engraved and printed in Erhard’s fres, workshops, 35 bis, Rue Denfert Rochereau, in Paris – hence it is an official document. We can see from it that Portuguese effective colonization does not seem to have reached the Matabeleland plateau, but only Mashonaland, although some groups of Portuguese gold – seekers and traders did advance more to the west, reaching the lands which form today the “Tati Concession”, south of the 21 degrees parallel and west of the 28 degrees meridian. The present town of Tati was built over Portuguese ruins. (Tati is in present day Botswana)
    If we examine the tracing of the part of that Map which is of interest to our communication, just as it was drawn and published over sixty years ago, and place upon it a transparency in which present communication routes have been drawn in the same scale, we notice, even upon a slight analysis:- At the time, the western border of the old Portuguese district of Sofala followed a line parallel to the 30 degrees meridian, from its crossing with the 21 degrees parallel until it reached the Selukwe (Shurugwi), about 19 degrees 40 minutes south, where it turned to the north – east.
    The Portuguese built two forts on this line of the old Sofala border, which we believe to have been identical to the one now discovered on the banks of the Angwa river. These forts, or their ruins or traces, can be found – (if that has not yet been done by accident) – the one, near and south – east of Shabani (Zvishavane), a railway head, and the other north – north – east of the same town, about 12 or 13 miles from Shabani (Zvishavane) and approximately 30 miles west of Fort Victoria. In the present “Tati Concession”, near the source of a sub- tributary of the Shashi river, there once existed another Portuguese fort which protected a settlement of Portuguese alluvial gold – seekers; 14 odd miles south – west of Lobengula’s town or kraal – (i.e., of the present city of Bulawayo) – and among outliers of the Matopo Hills, near the sources of some tributaries of the Gwaai river, there once existed another Portuguese fort, the traces or ruins of which should be sought a little north of the road and railway from Bulawayo to Mafeking.
    The most important stronghold built by the Portuguese in the 18th century or beginning of the 19th century – (perhaps the most recent – was the fortress of St. Francis Xavier on the right bank of the Kafue river and a little north of its confluence with the Zambezi. This fortress protected the usual passage of the warlike tribes from the north and prevented them from attacking the Portuguese settlements which stretched from the confluence of the Kafue to the confluence of the Sanyati on the left bank of the Zambezi – (today Northern Rhodesia) – opposite Chirundu (on the right bank, Southern Rhodesia) – that is to say, on the bank comprised between the two angles made by the Zambezi, the first rising from east to south and the second rising from the north to west.
    As the “Rhodesia Herald” said on the 14th November, 1952, there are several ruins of old strongholds built by Portuguese on the banks of the Angwa river, and therefore between the modern towns of Sipolilo (Guruve) and Miami in Southern Rhodesia, north of Zawi (head of the Sinoia (Chinhoyi) railway extension). As this fort has already been located it is natural that the four most important ones we have mentioned in this communication should have already been located, too; they are: Two between Shabani (Zvishavane) and Fort Victoria (Masvingo), one in the present “Tati Concession”, and another, perhaps the most important, a few miles from Bulawayo. The latter was feared by the famous Lobengula, whose moves it watched, protecting the Portuguese gold – seekers and traders coming from Tete and Sofala. If they have not yet been located, our wish that it should be done and that everything be tried to achieve it, seems to us only natural. If they have already been located, we present the suggestion that these ruins be also considered national monuments and placed under the control of the “natural and Historical Monuments and Relics Commission”.
    * Paper read to the 51st Congress of the South African Association for the Advancement of Science in Bulawayo, July, 1953.
    Mozambique Portuguese old map (1889)

    Old Portuguese Ruins in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)

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    Re: Old Portuguese Ruins in Southern Rhodesia

    ANGWA: PORTUGUESE SETTLEMENT AND FORT IN ZIMBABWEWritten by Chris Dunbar
    Of the six Angwa (Ongoe) Forts / Feiras I was only able to visit two, again it was an extremely arduous trip, very very hot and dry and pushed me again to my limits.
    The area has been seriously over run by illegal gold panners and they have caused extensive damage to Angwa Fort 4. Angwa Fort 1 took a long time to find and when I did find it I was surprised that it was not damaged in any way just over grown with excessive grass and trees.
    I was able to get a copy of E Goodall's report that she did in 1945 and a copy of her black and white photographs and also copies of her sketches outlining the walls and houses from four of the six sites, all very interesting.

    Outer wall of Angwa Fort 1. Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Wall and ditch of Angwa Fort 1, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Remains of the walls from Angwa Fort 4, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Remains of the outer walls of Angwa Fort 4 showing the serious damage that has occurred due to illegal gold panning activity, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Remains of the brick inner layer built by the Portuguese, Angwa Fort 4, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Ceramics and trade beads collected off the surface while I was
    visiting Angwa Fort 4, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Angwa: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) and Fort in Zimbabwe

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    Re: Old Portuguese Ruins in Southern Rhodesia

    A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON FOUR PORTUGUESE FORTS IN THE ANGWA VALLEY

    Written by Chris Dunbar
    Is the report that E Goodall did in the 1940's it was great work and the only work ever done on the Angwa Forts, I have copied it word for word but I have converted the distances to Km's so that more people can understand it.
    The drawings of the forts I have copied to scale where possible and I have added the notes so that one forts tells all what was seen at that site. I have attached the pictures as separate files so that they can be uploaded and I have attached some photos that I took of the artefacts collected from the sites. I have also attached some pics that I took in the ditch that can be compared to the picture from the 1945 expedition. Angwa: Portuguese settlement and fort in Zimbabwe.



    A Preliminary Report on Four Portuguese Forts in the Angwa Valley. “Unpublished report Queen Victoria Museum, Salisbury, Rhodesia 1946 by E. Goodall
    Written by E. Goodall
    During August, 1945, at the request of the Commission for the Preservation of Historical Monuments, a journey was made to the Sinoia (Chinhoyi) District to carry out an inspection of alleged Portuguese “Forts”, upon which Mr. H. B. Maufe, of the Geological Survey, had made a short report; two having been visited by him in 1941. It was my task to ascertain if any other such forts existed in the Angwa valley, and whether these structures can be claimed to belong to the Portuguese period; and also to advise whether the places should be proclaimed National Monuments.
    During my visit to the Angwa valley I visited four such “forts” and mention was made to me of two others.
    Description of the Forts.
    No. 1 Fort (1729 BB 2) 1703’55.71”S 2956’49.24”E
    This fort is situated near the West bank of the Angwa river, close to the Number – Three Mine, on Upson Downs Farm. The locality is reached from Sinoia (Chinhoyi), following the Miami road for about 32 miles (51 km’s); a small road branches off to the right soon after crossing the Ngonyi River. (No signboards). This track leads to the Adelaide Mine, worked by Mr. S. W. Hinze, and his sons. Mr. Hinze is able to provide a guide to two forts, situated on Upson Downs and here called No. 1 and No. 2 Forts.
    No. 1 Fort is close to the homestead and mine. At first sight the place was not striking and appeared doubtful whether it was a “fort”. But since the general plan showed features similar to others of this type, the fort was recorded and general measurements taken. The whole extent is not clear. The length is 42 yards (38 metres), the width cannot be quite determined; it is 35 to 40 yards (32 to 36 metres). See Plan A.
    The central mound, which appears in all forts, is very irregular, but the general lay-out may be an originally planned rectangle. Only excavation work at the central mound will reveal if this elevation is an anthill or an artificial erection. Unusual features, not observed in the three other forts, were certain stone arrangements on the two shorter sides. See Plan A. It is clearly seen that the stones placed in a geometrical way along the upper side are thus placed by human hands; towards the A – corner are signs that such stones have been removed. Further research work may be directed to this spot to ascertain whether these stone – marked places may indicate graves. At the opposite side of the enclosure are some larger blocks of stone on a slightly lower “platform” in a somewhat geometrical position.
    This “fort” is in a very unobserved position and not likely to be disturbed. It should be kept in mind for further investigation, but I doubt whether it is worth declaring a National Monument. This may be decided after some time has been spent there by a field - worker to ascertain whether the place has served as a fort.
    No. 2 Fort (1729 BB 5) 1703’38.50”S 2958’04.58”E
    This fort is also on Upson Downs Farm, not very far from No.1 Fort, near the Angwa river. There is a free approach to the locality. A tree grows out of the centre mound and is a landmark for some distance. This fort is of considerable interest. A look at the Plan B shows that much unauthorised excavation has taken place, resulting in the destruction of certain important features.
    The fort consists of a rectangular enclosure of about 57 by 47 yards (52 – 43 metres). The East and North sides are protected by a low earth vallum, the greatest height and width is 3 feet (90 cm’s), but in most places is much less. The South boundary is much obscured by a large earth accumulation, which is highest in the South – West corner; there are on the same boundary, several modern excavation holes and an “entrance” near the S.E. corner. There is no earth wall on the West side; here the ground slopes evenly down into the surrounding country. On inspection, it appeared clear that the whole rectangular enclosure and its various earthworks are artificial. All earth enclosed in the rectangle has to a greater or lesser extent been carried there. This was clearly observed, as the grass outside had been recently burnt, and fresh grass was growing, while within the rectangle very little grass was to be seen.
    Though it is in a lamentable state of preservation, the centre mound is of importance. It is about 9 to 10 feet (2.7 – 3 metres) above the inner level of the fort, very irregular and roughly oblong. It shows many signs of disturbance, due to modern prospectors looking for “treasures”. The large holes are to be seen and according to the description of my guide, they are the remains of two or three rooms which are to be found within the mound. This sounded rather fantastic and I was inclined to disbelieve it. Mention was also made of a passage along which my guide said he walked when a little boy. On inspection I found one place, marked thus on the plan ← , where I could see that the mound indeed contains inner structures, erected of sun baked, oblong bricks, so – called “Kimberley bricks”.
    This is apparently a passage corner; it must have quite recently collapsed, as it showed two newly exposed inner surfaces. I observed bricks of 1 foot (30 cm’s), 1½ foot (45 cm’s) and 2 feet (60 cm’s) lengths. There was a layer of about 2 feet (60 cm’s) of earth above the walls. The two large holes which are apparently parts of inner chambers show no signs of how they were constructed. They were from 6 to 7 feet (1.8 to 2.1 metres) in depth. Near the upper end, one of the holes has a row of stones along the two longer sides. See photograph Fig. 1.
    The person mainly responsible for the present bad state of preservation of this fort is a Mrs. Quarrie, now residing at Ardbennie, near Salisbury (Harare). I recently went to see her with the intention of obtaining an interview. Although still vigorous at the age of 75, her statements were somewhat confused, but this is what I could glean from her:
    Mrs. Quarrie and her husband lived in the Angwa valley about 25 to 30 years ago. They worked the Mum’s Reef, which is about 2 to 3 miles (3.2 to 4.8 km’s) from this fort. Her son reported one day having seen a curious square ‘anthill’, out of which a big tree was growing. Mrs. Quarrie realised that this could not be an anthill and with a gang of boys started excavating at various places, mainly at the centre. Mention was made by her of coming across a wall about 3 feet (90 cm’s) thick, made of ‘Kimberley bricks’. A ‘stoep’ was found running alongside the wall, and, going further, a second wall running parallel with the first. Into this wall also, Mrs. Quarrie dug a large hole and came to one of the chambers. Here was found a lot of blue – and – white china, hand – painted; there was also some iron arrow heads. All these objects were removed by Mrs. Quarrie and subsequently lost. Much excavated earth was carried away by wheel – barrows. How much was actually done or destroyed is hard to know. Mrs. Quarrie had observed that the square N.- W. corner (4 by 4 yards) (3.6 by 3.6 metres), was built entirely of ‘Kimberley bricks’. According to Mrs. Q., the whole rectangular ‘yard’ was paved with such raw bricks. All bricks she removed were so heavy that it was almost impossible to lift them. As far as I could gather, the spot marked ST? on the map, is the place where Mrs. Quarrie started digging on entering the centre mound.
    Although probably ruined beyond reconstruction, this fort is certainly worth further consideration. It should be thoroughly searched and carefully excavated by a field-worker, who has adequate time at his disposal. Whether this fort can be preserved for posterity, seems doubtful, as it may be doomed to further decay. But it should be protected for the time being, to prevent any further diggings by unauthorised persons.
    As the photograph shows, part of the original structures are intact, but it cannot be foreseen how much may collapse in the course of thorough investigations. In spite of this possible danger, the earth masses covering the structures should be removed, so as to make clear what remains below.
    When the place has been fully investigated it can be decided whether further preservation serves any purpose.
    The only surface find made at No. 2. Fort was part of the top of a wheel – made water flask, of fine – grained light brown earthenware, such as are known to come from Portuguese factories.
    Newly Reported Fort not visited
    New mention of a fort, in the vicinity of No. 1, with which it is said to be very similar, was made by my guide, as being situated higher up in the hills. I did not visit it but that may be done by someone at a future date.
    Forts on the East bank of the Angwa.
    Actually, these forts are close to the mentioned above, but as it is impossible to cross the river by car, return is necessary to the main road and then, going in the direction of Sinoia (Chinhoyi), turn to the North – East at Lion’s Den, (railway crossing), 14 miles (22½ km’s) North of Sinoia (Chinhoyi). The road runs parallel with the railway to Zawi; follow the road passing through Two Tree Hill Farm and Two Tree Hill Extension No. 1 and 11, both unoccupied, continue over unnamed land until the camp of Mr. A. M. Martin is reached. Coming out from Sinoia (Chinhoyi), the best way is to take the Umboe Road, which branches off the main road 5 miles (8 km’s) North of Sinoia (Chinhoyi) and joins with the other one at Urungwe Farm.
    Mr. Martin is the sole survivor of olden times in this part of the Angwa Valley and has been most helpful in guiding me to the two forts on this side of the river.
    No.3 Fort (1729 BB 1) 1701’52.97”S 2957’47.89”E
    This and the next fort to be described are the two on which Mr. Maufe gave a short report. No.3 Fort is the largest and most impressive of those seen during my visit, though it also had been interfered with. See Plan C. The inner measurements of the rectangular enclosure are approximately 100 yards long (91 metres) by 82 yards wide (75 metres). The enclosure is protected on all four sides by an earth vallum, outside of which is a parallel ditch. See Section E – F. The depth of this ditch is up to 4 and 5 feet (1.2 and 1.5 metres). The width varies from 3 to 13 feet (1 to 4 metres)
    Collapsed passage way, Angwa Fort 2, Zimbabwe
    Outside View. Vallum and Ditch looking towards N - E Corner, Angwa Fort 3, Zimbabwe
    Along the West side, which runs parallel with the nearby river, is an additional outer wall. From here the ground slopes down to the river.
    The average height of the wall is from 3 to 5 feet (1 to 1½ metres), above the inside level. The ground inside the enclosure is a foot (30 cm’s) or so above the outer level and is apparently artificially levelled up.
    The whole western boundary and particularly the part towards the N.- W. corner has been badly spoilt by modern interference. There is a roughly square elevation at the N. – W. corner, which must have been an important part of the fortification. Deep modern trenches have spoilt the shape and severed it from the main fort. It is rather difficult here to walk over the various cross – trenches and to get some idea of how it may have looked when intact.
    The North – East corner is somewhat higher then the adjoining walls, the height being 7 feet (2 metres).
    A peculiar feature is the South – East corner. There is a circular sunken bastion with a diameter of 9 to 10 feet (2.7 to 3 metres). See also Section G-H
    There is also one ‘entrance’ at the South – West corner, where the ditch is wide but very shallow. The entrance is quite level. See Fig. 4 and Section I – K.
    There is another entrance in the approximate centre of the East wall. The centre mound is very irregular and shows a number of short, modern, excavation trenches. The original ‘platforms’ are hard to ascertain.
    The only find, outside the enclosure – one shard of glazed earthenware, part of the round bottom of a large jar. A similar piece was presented by Mr. Martin, found by him many years ago, it is a part of the hexagonal bottom of a large jar.
    Fig. 3. Looking towards S. – E. corner, with ‘sunken bastion’ (marked with pen on original picture), Angwa Fort 3, Zimbabwe
    Fig. 4. Entrance at the S.-W. corner. In the background: centre mound. (marked with pen and arrow on original picture), Angwa Fort 3, Zimbabwe
    Fort No.4. (1729. BB. 19) 1701’43.58”S 2958’19.88”E
    Near the North – East boundary of the Two Tree Hill Extension No.2. Length 62 yards (57 metres), width 50 yards (46 metres). See Plan D. The fort consists of a rectangular enclosure, bounded by an earth vallum on all four sides. The main entrance seems to have been at the approximate centre of the East side. In the centre of the North wall is a ‘port’, but this may have been dug subsequently. The ramparts have an average width of 10 feet (3 metres) at the base.
    Partition walls are 5 to 6 feet (1½ to 1.8 metres) wide at the base. The North – West corner has a square bastion, somewhat irregular 8 by 8 yards (7 by 7 metres). The three outer faces are flagged with stones.
    Fig. 5. Squared Bastion at N.- W. corner, from North side, Angwa Fort 4, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Fig. 6. Squared Bastion at N.- W. corner, from West side. Angwa Fort 4, Angwa, Zimbabwe

    The South – West and North – East corners are a little higher than their two adjoining walls; see Fig. 7.
    At the S – E corner there must have been once an important bastion, however all that remains is an irregularly round earth – wall, enclosing a platform which is a little higher than the inner level of the ‘yard’ of the fort. The walls here are 5 feet (1½ metres) in width at the base and less in height. But it is very likely that interference has taken place. I could see a few square spots, where most likely sun baked bricks have been removed. It is therefore likely that the walls were originally higher, after the style of the bastions of the Sofala Fortress. (Antonio Fernandes, Descobridor Do Monomotapa, 1940, shows several pictures of it).
    Again, the centre mound is in a bad state of preservation, through modern interference by fortune diggers. There are 2 stone slabs, roughly shaped to a rectangular size, 3 feet by 18 in. wide (90 cm’s by 46 cm’s), of a pinkish slate, which serve as steps from the first low platform to the upper one See Fig. 8.

    Fig.7. Inside view of No. 4 Fort, looking towards N.-E. corner (original picture marked with pen at top) Angwa Fort 4, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Fig. 8. 2 steps on the centre mound, No. 4 Fort. Angwa Fort 4, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    To right of steps modern excavations. According to my guide a miner dug here and came to a ‘chamber’. There was now no visible sign of such a structure. But it is likely that such may be hidden under the masses of earth. The mound is roughly 14 by 19 yards (13 by 17 metres). The partition walls, of similar size, are a feature not observed in the other forts.
    ----------------------------------------
    I received a letter from Mr. J. D. Paré, dated the 11th November 45, in answer to various enquires of mine, regarding these forts. Mr. Paré was formally mining the Go – Ho claims, not far from the vicinity of the forts, and now in Selukwe (Shurugwe, I think). I give a short extracts of what he reported.
    He did not do any excavation work at the forts but went to see Mrs. Quarrie digging at one of the mounds with a couple of boys and saw a passage and room exposed. This was entirely empty. Mr. Paré remembers having seen this room which was lined with raw or ‘Kimberley bricks’, also an adjoining room which was then intact, except for a large hole through which one could peep. The bricked sides were clearly visible and in excellent condition.
    This was 20 years ago.
    Re : chain mail. Mr. Paré states that he never found any intact chain mail, nor has he found any skeletons, only numerous copper beads, but these did not originate from the forts, but were found while sluicing at the Angwa. He sent 2 of these beads in his letter.
    These beads are identical with those found in native graves and which were, until recently, used as ornaments on native skin aprons; (the ornaments being made into small pieces of ‘mail’ by the use of bark fibre and then sewn on to the leather). A piece of such work is exhibited in the Bulawayo Museum; I think having served as a belt.
    It seems therefore that these beads cannot be connected with the Portuguese inhabitation, but only native alluvial workings alongside the river.
    …………………………………………………..
    Mention of further Forts – not visited. (1729 BB 3) 1700’30.58”S 2959’43.52”E
    Mr. A. M. Martin mentioned another fort in the Angwa valley, about 10 to 12 miles (16 to 19 km’s) N.-N.-E. from his camp alongside a small river. He could not give any further details, but it may be undisturbed and should be searched for by a field worker.
    ………………………………………………….
    Mr. Paré also speaks of similar forts near Mt. Darwin and Makaha.
    Mr. McGregor, of the Geological Survey, has seen one fort at Makaha; he says it is exactly similar to Plan ‘D’ of No.4 Fort, in the Angwa valley.
    …………………………………………………..
    General Remarks.
    1. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 Forts are certainly worth investigation on a somewhat larger scale, though it is clear that parts of the original shape and structure have been spoilt. But they should be protected until investigations are completed, and people warned not to excavate. Any work done here by a field – worker will require careful preparation; no labour can be obtained in the vicinity of the Angwa river, all natives having been removed by the Government from this district. Besides a few isolated miners and their native workers, there are no human inhabitants in the area. Labour and provisions, etc., will have to be brought to the various places.
    2. In regard to the question whether these forts can be connected with Portuguese settlements in this Colony, it can be said that in all probability they may be ascribed to Portuguese enterprise. In all four cases we can see a rectangular plan, in three of them there are walls which meet at right angles and re – enforcements at the corners. In a primitive way these resemble bastions of the type of forts which we know from illustrations only, e.g., Sofala. The centre mounds have certain features in common, and there is evidence that bricked walls and ‘rooms’ are hidden under the earth masses, showing that these constructions were made by people practising a masonry tradition.
    Although ‘finds’ are very scarce so far, further investigation would, no doubt, bring to light additional and necessary evidence. The whole study of these forts is a wide and important subject which needs the fullest enquiry.
    E. Goodall.
    Copper Mould, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Riffle Box, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Remains of the brick inner layer built by the Portuguese, Angwa Fort 4, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Ceramics and trade beads collected off the surface while I was
    visiting Angwa Fort 4, Angwa, Zimbabwe

    Plan of Angwa Fort 1, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Plan of Angwa Fort 2, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Plan of Angwa Fort 3, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Plan of Angwa Fort 4, Angwa, Zimbabwe

    Section E-F. Cross section of Angwa Fort 3, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Section G-H. Cross section of Angwa Fort 3, Angwa, Zimbabwe
    Section I-K. Cross section of Angwa Fort 3, Angwa, Zimbabwe


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    Re: Old Portuguese Ruins in Southern Rhodesia

    DAMBARARE: PORTUGUESE SETTLEMENT AND FORT IN ZIMBABWE

    Written by Chris Dunbar
    This site is scattered over a very wide area and was a large settlement (Dambarare covers about 6 square km's), one of the largest Earthworks numbered 2 was flooded when the Jumbo Mine Dam was built, a great shame as while a little excavation work was done the Professor that I spoke with told me that only 2% of the site was studied so truly a great wealth of possible finds lost for ever.
    I looked and searched and was very disappointed with the lack of success, I have a few pictures but only one worth anything, it shows a small hill where a very minor earthwork was situated, it was never excavated and all surface remains have gone.






    Some Early Portuguese Relics from Dambarare, Rhodesia (today Zimbabwe)
    Written by P. S. Garlake. Historical Monuments Commission, Salisbury (today Harare)
    Portuguese traders, administrators and missionaries were living in permanent settlements in many parts of Mashonaland at least throughout the seventeenth century. The goods they traded with the local people are well attested and consisted largely of cloth and beads. Cloth, of course, would decay quickly in most circumstances but Portuguese trade beads and imported ceramics are found at many sites in Rhodesia, particularly in important ruins such as Khami and Dhlo Dhlo.



    Finds of more personal relics belonging to the first European settlers of Rhodesia are, however, surprisingly rare. In 1967 a small area of the church at Dambarare, one of the most important Portuguese centres, twenty – six miles north – west of Salisbury, was excavated to reveal a large number of burials alongside the walls and beneath the floors of the building. In several, personal possessions and items of dress were preserved. These are worth describing if only because they are almost unique in the African interior.
    At least ten Portuguese men were buried at various times within the church itself. Almost everything except the bones had perished but on six bodies metal ornaments had survived. Around the neck of one man was a gilded bronze medallion. On one side is the profile of a female head wearing a crown and encircled by a halo with the inscription S. ELISABET R. LUSITANIA (Fig 1, right. All figures are reproduced actual size).
    On the other side is the bust of a cloaked, tonsured and haloed man in profile contemplating a figure of the Christ Child standing on a pedestal. Around is the inscription S. ANTONII.-V with ROM – in the exergue (Fig 2, right).
    Elizabeth, 1271 – 1336, was the wife of King Denis 1 of Portugal, founder of the famous military Order of Christ which frequently played a prominent part in the Portuguese Conquests. She was closely associated with the town of Coimbra and was canonised in 1625. The medallion must have been struck between 1625 and the abandonment of Dambarare in 1693, presumably in Rome for the name does not take the normal Portuguese form Isabella but is close to the Latin Elisabeth. The reverse represents Antony of Padua, 1195 – 1231, who was born in Lisbon and lived in Coimbra before leaving Portugal. This representation of St. Antony with the Christ Child was missing text century. Resting on the pelvis of the same body was a hollow, tapered, cylindrical bronze rod with eight facets, with a small clenched right fist at its tip. The interior is partly filled with red wax (Fig. 3, left).
    This is an aiguillette – an item of seventeenth century male dress which formed the ornamental end of a cord tying together portions of armour, or doublets and hose. The practical importance of these fastenings is illustrated by Shakespeare when Falstaff describes his conquest of the thieves in “buckram suits” : “Their points being broken – down fell their hose” (Henry IV, Pt.1, Act II, Sc. IV). The only other object with this body was a gold ring, found on the little finger of the left hand, decorated with two horizontal grooves.
    Aiguillettes were found at the hips of the other two men. One, of silver, is grooved spirally round its entire surface with four vertical flutes and has a beaded rim at each end (Fig. 3, right). It contains a small bar across the interior of one end for the attachment of the cord. The other is again a tapered cylinder of bronze with a clenched fist at its tip and red wax in the interior. (Fig. 3, centre). In the latter burial, the plain bronze casing of what was presumably a bone or wood pin, lay close to the aiguillette. It forms a hollow, tapered cylinder, 35mm. long and 2.5mm. wide at the base. The torso of this body has been reburied after disturbance by a later burial and amongst the bones was a tiny bronze hook and eye exactly like those produced today (Fig. 4, right)
    A fourth man had at his waist not an aiguillette but a small silver buckle engraved with a series of ten Maltese crosses or four leafed rosettes within oval frames (Fig. 4, left). A bronze epaulette rested near his left shoulder : this is a thin, copper plate curved to the shape of the shoulder with a latticed strip on the outer face, through which a strap (10 mm. wide, almost the same as that of the buckle) was presumably laced (Fig. 5).
    He also had a tiny copper pin at his chin and the silver casing of a further pin, 29 mm. long and 3 mm. wide at its base with a tiny ball decorating the tip, was found on his breast. Two further bodies were found wearing gold finger rings : one a plain circle, the other bearing nine diamond shaped facets round its exterior face.
    Immediately outside the church, African and Coloured women and children were interred. The African women were heavily adorned with copper and bronze bracelets and anklets. One also wore a splendid girdle of shell and glass beads. Hanging from this was a rosary of small carved ivory beads and attached to them, a tiny, heavily worn bronze medal. It bears on one side a full length female figure, possibly with a halo, standing beside an unidentified object and an inscription which appears to read G. EATIS (Fig. 1, left). The other side bears a barely distinguishable figure standing on a crescent moon, surrounded by rays and probably crowned, presumably representing the assumption of the Virgin (Fig. 2, left).
    In the same area, just outside the church, three Portuguese men had also been buried. There was nothing with them except a rectangular tablet of fine clay found beside the right upper arm of one man. This bears an impression of the Virgin in glory, crowned, holding the Christ Child, and standing on a crescent moon and clouds. Below is an armorial shield, apparently bearing only a single crescent, surmounted by a three armed cross – the lowest arm of which is considerably shorter than the others – and supported by two brackets which also support the clouds. The interpretation of the symbolism or the armorial bearing is unknown. This tablet must have been contained in a pouch or bound to the wearer’s arm for there is no means of attachment on the tablet itself.
    There is clearly little intrinsically remarkable in these relics. Their craftsmanship is ordinary and the medallions at least were clearly mass produced to stereo typed designs. The silver and gold adornments were of no higher quality and have a high copper content. Their interest lies only in their rarity and in the link they provide and the light they shed on the earliest European settlement of Rhodesia.
    The only other relics of the Portuguese that have been found in Rhodesia are a small gold bracelet of the Sacred Heart found some 70 years ago in the Dhlo Dhlo ruins and an ivory statuette of the Virgin from an “ancient working” near Chakari, (not far from a seventeenth century trade post, identified and excavated in 1965). Both have been described by Mr. R Summers of the National Museum, Bulawayo (in Mocambique nos. 63 and 83). The statuette was originally said to be of the Assumption of the Virgin, but it is now known to represent the Immaculate Conception, a theme in Christian iconography that was extremely popular in Southern Spain in the seventeenth century, and one represented on two of the six religious medallions recently recovered in excavations at Fort Jesus, Mombassa, one of the most important centres on the east African Coast at the time of their settlement in Rhodesia.



    Some Early Portuguese Relics from Dambarare, Zimbabwe
    ReynoDeGranada dio el Víctor.

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    LUANZE: PORTUGUESE SETTLEMENT AND FORT IN ZIMBABWE

    Written by Chris Dunbar
    The Fort of Luanze, where the Portuguese hold a market, is in the lands of Mocaranga, forty leagues from Tete.....this fort has a church, served by a dominican friar who administrates the sacraments to the christians who dwell there or pass through. Pedro Barreto de Rezende, 1634.
    I then went to Luanze which is about 450 km's from the Piringani site and about 20 km's short of the Mozambique border. I had with me a member of the Department of National Monuments as a guide and facilitator.
    The remains of the houses built by the Portuguese traders are no longer visible but are indicated by a series of stone markers placed by the archaeologists that excavated the site in the 1960's. The stone walls built by the local natives that co habited the site with the Portuguese traders are still very evident and the stream that started the trade in alluvial gold, was just evident. It was very difficult to picture the site as the vegetation has taken over but it was possible to walk along the walls that were built as barricades and protection. While in the trade square it was relatively (and surprising so) easy to pick up trade beads and shards of Chinese pottery that the Portuguese used to barter for gold and ivory.
    Once you crossed the tar sealed road at the modern way stop (Masarakufa) it took a bit of looking to locate the site of the Dominican Church, but did find it as it is marked by a plinth placed by the Department of National Monuments. It is regrettably in a very poor state of repair, I had to clear some of the bush and grass as it was over my head, to find the foundations. The floor while once compacted and level is far from that today, the walls are only inches high but it is still possible to see the outline of the wooden poles imprinted into the mud, that was used for the walls and support structures for this church in 1634, it was incredible.



    In Mtoko there is a little museum built to house the artefacts un-earthed at the Luanze Feira.
    I attempted to go through Luanze to get to Makaha but there is no viable route any more so I tried to go via Kamoto but I was advised that the route was too long and arduous for the time I had allocated to this visit.


    Modern day way stop (Masarakufa) at the site, the church is that side of the road the market is on the side from where I took the photo. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Luanze, Zimbabwe. Native sections of the walls that have survived
    What I collected in the space of a metre or so. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    The trade grounds today. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    The outer trade grounds. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Native sections of the walls that have survived. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Native sections of the walls that have survived. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Native sections of the walls that have survived. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Archaeological drawings. Mtoko Museum
    Chinese Pottery found at the site. Mtoko Museum
    Sketch of the trade routes and settlements / forts / ferias. Mtoko Museum
    Finds. Mtoko Museum
    Native sections of the walls that have survived. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Grave marker. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Plinth to mark the market / fair site. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Markers placed to indicate were the Portuguese traders’ houses were. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Markers placed to indicate were the Portuguese traders’ houses were. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Remains of the church walls. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Remains of the church walls. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    The market / fair (feira) outer wall. Luanze, Zimbabwe



    Luanze: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) and Fort in Zimbabwe

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    Markers placed to indicate were the Portuguese traders’ houses were. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    The market / fair (feira) outer wall. Luanze, Zimbabwe



    Luanze: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) and Fort in Zimbabwe

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    Written by Chris Dunbar
    Revisited Luanze and gained permission to do some clean up/restoration on the site.
    I worked with one local African with an axe and a grass cutter it took us the whole day to clear the church site, we cut the grass and cut the trees then killed the stumps.
    In the Earthwork 2 around the remains of the three Portuguese houses we cut the grass and removed the trees, we tried to remove the ant mounds and lift some of the fallen stone markers but time was now running short.


    The fact that two of us cleared and cleaned these two small areas probably means that the site will remain visible for a number of extra years.
    Earthwork 1 the larger of the two I was not able to do anything with, I did walk over to visit it but as Earthwork 2 has more tangible visual remains decided to spend my time attempting to preserve those remains.



    The marker stones from where the Portuguese built their houses, daga / mud with pole imprints is still scattered on the ground. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Photo of the Eastern Bastion on Earthwork 2. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Photo of the Eastern Entrance on Earthwork 2. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    The site of the Church after we cleared the trees and grass. Daga / mud with pole imprints was very visible. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Ceramics Blue on White that we found while clearing the site around the Portuguese houses. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Beads that were collected while we did the clean up and from what the children brought us while we did the clean up. Luanze, Zimbabwe
    Marker stones from Portuguese houses. Luanze, Zimbabwe

    Archaeological drawings for Luanze settlement (click on the map to enlarge)

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    MAKAHA: PORTUGUESE SETTLEMENT IN ZIMBABWE

    Written by Chris Dunbar
    The trip to find the site of Makaha was via the town of Mutoko and then on a dirt road for 90 minutes into the growth point of Makaha. Once we left the growth point we had to resort to four wheel driving as the road turned to a track and became very treacherous due the massive amount of illegal gold mining and the trenches and holes that the illegal miners had dug. Again as with my trip to find Maramuca I was offered gold dust at every illegal gold mine.
    The location of this site is about five kilometres from the Ruenya River and while in the 1950's the outer walls were still visible when I did find the site once again every thing had been obliterated by the illegal gold miners. I discussed this particular site with a number of the staff from the Museums and with a number of interested parties, all agreed that this site was not actually Portuguese or at least there was very little evidence to show that it was settled by the Portuguese. The excavations while only on a very minor scale failed to provide any further evidence of a Portuguese presence. The claim to it being Portuguese are based off a very old miners claim (1945) that he had found an earthwork similar to the ones on the Angwa River also documented in 1945.
    In order for me to wonder around the bush near Makaha I had to gain permission from the local village elder and the local political commissioner and with their help I was taken to two very interesting sites, it was claimed that both sites were of Portuguese origin.
    The first site was on top of a hill and was constructed of schist and was very clearly "native" I worked at the site for a number of hours and only found "native" pottery shards.


    The second site was truly fantastic the walls and turrets were still standing, without the aid of cement. The outlines of the rooms were evident and the tree that was growing in the walls was at least 100 years but again I think it was too structured and when I looked on the map from the National Monuments I could not find any reference to it at all. I found no sign of Portuguese presence.
    This site was north east of the Makaha site only about 2km's. The walls are pretty much as is there were no scattered stones so the walls are close to their original height. The walls circled the top of the hill. The defensive line was probably 200 metres in circumference in the middle of the "fort" was a slight depression which I was told was were the white people of old (the village elder claimed Portuguese) had lived and to the left of that depression was a very deep shaft cut into the schist and that was a "gold" vein and the walls had been built to defend that "gold" vein. The entrance (there was only one) is clearly visible.
    The elder claimed that this was a Portuguese site, to me it is clearly a stone "zimbabwe" I did not have the time to excavate, I did look at the construction and the surrounds, I was taken to number of large holes in the ground on the southern side of the hill about twenty metres below the summit and the walls and the holes were laid out in a definite pattern, the village elder said that these were graves. Now, when I sat with the village elder a few hours later and shared some water, he told me that he had only been in the area for 70 years, Makaha was well known to him as Portuguese, no Portuguese artefacts have been found and not even Blue on White Chinese Porcelain shards have been found. I think that over the years interested parties like me have come looking for the Portuguese site and he has heard the rumours and put them altogether in a jumbled story. The ruins on the hill, oral tradition states that these are Portuguese in origin. I would hazard that they were a defensive site to protect the local villages from the Portuguese.
    What I did find interesting was a rumour that close to the supposed site of Makaha was a grave yard with headstones and inscriptions of Portuguese who had died in the area. I did not have time to follow this up but may make this a separate project for next year.




    The hill site for the site which was Shona not Portuguese. Makaha, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar

    Schist walls at Shona site. Makaha, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar


    Schist walls at Shona site. Makaha, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar

    Schist walls at Shona site. Makaha, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar


    Native pottery collected from the site . Makaha, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar


    Copper cube collected from the site. Makaha, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar

    The site of Makaha feira is behind the big trees on the left of the picture. Makaha, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar

    Makaha: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) in Zimbabwe
    Última edición por Hyeronimus; 23/08/2011 a las 19:46

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    MARAMUCA: PORTUGUESE SETTLEMENT IN ZIMBABWE

    Written by Chris Dunbar
    The trip to Maramuca was via the town of Chegutu and then another 30 odd kilometres on an old strip road to the gold mining town of Chakari. From Chakari we had to travel on a dirt road which later turned into a dirt track.
    The location of this site is on an old bend on the Suri Suri River, it is possible but not likely that this section of the river formed part of an ox bow during the years that the Portuguese settled this feira.
    Once we were in the vicinity of the Suri Suri River gold panning by illegal miners became very evident, holes dug by the miners became an increasing worry for me as I did not want to over turn the Land Cruiser that I was driving.
    We parked the vehicle and decided to walk to the site of Maramuca, the bush was extremely thick with grass and very wooded, which was strange as I would have thought that the miners would have removed the trees for fire wood.
    At each active illegal gold mine I was offered gold dust, us$2.00 per point and a point was about one gram. A fantastic price but as it is illegal I would not purchase the gold dust.
    We walked for close to five kilometres to locate the site in extremely hot temperatures. The amount of gold dust offered to me brought back the fact that the Portuguese traders at the feira must have has access to a considerable amount of gold.
    The feira itself once found was in a very sorry state and the walls which were hardly visible in the 1960's were completely gone, the illegal miners had completely destroyed the site. Without the use of a GPS I would have not found this site.



    We know that a Portuguese trader Goncalvo Joao had secured the rights to trade in this area and that he probably built the walls and the feira. In the 1930's an ivory statuette depicting Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception was found in the ancient gold workings, modern day Bay Horse Mine, it is I am told at the Bulawayo Museum.
    I was able to collect some Blue on White Chinese Ceramic shards and number of arrow and spear heads all were collected, position located via the GPS and returned to the National Museums and Monuments inspector that accompanied me.
    The feira of Maramuca is to the left of the gold panning activity on the slight rise. Maramuca, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar


    Grinding stone close to were I found the ceramic and very close to the map co ordinates, it was a further clue that we were in the correct area. Maramuca, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar

    The road in was 40km's of this then 5km's of walking through the bush as the only paths visible were ones used by the illegal gold panners. Maramuca, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar

    Maramuca: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) in Zimbabwe

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    SEVENTEENTH CENTURY PORTUGUESE EARTHWORKS IN RHODESIA (MARAMUCA (HARTLEY (CHEGUTU))

    Written by P. S. Garlake Historical Monuments Commission, Rhodesia

    INTRODUCTION
    Two sites, one in the Mtoko (Mutoko) district containing two separate rectangular earthworks and the other in the Hartley (Chegutu) district with a single very similar earthwork have recently been identified and excavated. The excavations were on a very small scale intended primarily to provide, as far as possible, a dateable pottery and bead series rather than reveal details of construction or plan. Both sites yielded glazed Chinese wares of the seventeenth century and beads of types identical to those found in the later ruin period of the Rhodesian (Zimbabwean) Iron Age, besides locally made pottery. From documentary evidence, it appears that the Mtoko (Mutoko) site can be identified with the important Portuguese trading fair of Luanze while the Hartley (Chegutu) site lies within the area known to the Portuguese as Maramuca.
    THE HARTLEY (CHEGUTU) SITE
    In February, 1965, attention was drawn to an unsigned report dated 28th May 1947 in the Mining Commissioner’s Office in Gatooma (Kadoma), referring to a “Portuguese Fort marked on an old blueprint” and a low quartz wall retaining a terrace near the Suru Suri river which the writer identified with it. This site was rediscovered in July 1965 and found to be an earthwork almost identical to those of Mtoko (Mutoko).


    The site lies on the summit of a small kopje on the west bank of the Suri Suri river, 9 miles (14.5 km’s) above its confluence with the Umfuli river, opposite one of the rare permanent pools. This is the eastern edge of the Lower Umfuli gold belt, where a granite and greenstone schist contact is marked by numerous quartz veins. Such veins are frequently mineralised and bear the gold of the belt. The kopje on which the earthwork is built is a quartz rubble, and a similar kopje 100 yards (91 m’s) to the north is pitted with shallow ancient workings. One and a half miles (2.4 m’s) north of the site, a quartz vein dams the Suri Suri river and on the eastern bank is surrounded by a rough piled wall – further indication of Iron Age exploitation of the quartz. Five and a half miles (8.9 km’s) north – east of the site is the Bay Horse mine, recently the main gold producer of the Lower Umfuli. Here, in the 1930’s, in the fill of an ancient working an ivory statuette of the Immaculate Conception, a Portuguese colonial work of the seventeenth or eighteenth century, was found, (Summers, 1950).
    The site (Fig. 1) clearly bears a very close resemblance to the earthworks of Mtoko (Mutoko). Again straight banks enclose a rectangle orientated precisely north, 220 foot (67 m’s) wide and 180 foot (55 m’s) long, with bastions 20 foot (6.1 m’s) wide projecting 15 foot (4.6 m’s) from the centre of each wall. The steep eastern slope of the kopje summit has, however, necessitated further work. Thus, a further wall runs across the centre of the site with an artificial terrace retained by a revetment wall of massive quartz boulders extending east of it, doubtless to provide a level building base, for the slope below to the outer eastern wall is too steep for any building. The most important structure on the site is a rectangular brick building close to the western bastion, the top of whose southern wall stands today some 9 foot (2.7 m’s) above natural ground level. This building was externally 19 foot 8 inches (6 m’s) wide and probably 27 feet (8.2 m’s) long, divided into a series of three long, narrow rooms, each 7 foot (2.1 m’s) wide and 16 foot 4 inches (4.9 m’s) long internally – a plan identical in its basis to that of contemporary East African domestic architecture (Garlake, 1966). The floor was almost certainly raised on an artificial platform some 3 foot (90 cm’s) above ground level. Most of this however is obscured by a very large termite mound that has formed round the entire building. The wall is built of sun – dried brick of a highly calcareous, pale grey, very fine sandy loam, probably derived from antheaps on the Suri Suri alluvium. The bricks are 5¾ inches (15 cm’s) high and 10½ inches (26.5 cm’s) long and the wall 20 inches (51 cm’s) thick, with the daga mortar of the joints 1 - 1½ inches (2.5 – 4 cm’s) thick, giving four courses to 2 foot 3 inches (69 cm’s). The good state of preservation of the southern wall immediately raised some considerable doubt as to its contemporaneity with the earthwork itself but this was resolved in excavation. Beyond three separate scatters of daga there was further trace of occupation within the enclosure, and again the only indication of possible entrances was in the bastions, particularly those on the northern and eastern sides.
    Fig. 1. Plan of the Hartley (Chegutu) site
    EXCAVATIONS
    It was clear that, beside the brick building where excavation would have produced almost insuperable preservation problems, there was virtually no occupation deposit anywhere within or near the earthwork.
    A trench on the inner face of the western terrace showed that the terrace fill consisted of the same red quartz gravel and yielded only a single sherd before natural gravel was reached, at a maximum depth of 2 foot (60 cm’s), against the inner face of the revetment wall. A trench excavated outside the western wall confirmed that there was no outer encircling ditch and sterile natural red quartz was reached 6 inches (15 cm’s) below ground level. This trench was extended inwards to the centre of the enclosure wall and again yielded no finds. This excavation did reveal that the wall was not an earth bank as anticipated but that’s its core was built of three courses of brickwork of identical size and fabric to the main building, giving a total height of only 1 foot 7½ inches (50 cm’s). Against this core, gravel was piled, sloping regularly outwards so that total thickness of brick core and gravel at the base of the wall was 4 foot (1.2 m’s) from the centre to outer edge. There is no reason to believe that the enclosure wall is not identical construction to this throughout. It confirms the contemporaneity of the brick main building with the main enclosure wall.
    Outside the outer eastern wall the whole steep slope of the kopje is strewn with abundant fragments of stick daga. The scatter appears most probably to be derived from the destruction of huts, probably from the terrace within the enclosure rather than from the collapse of huts in situ. Though the steepness precluded any depth of deposit, excavation here yielded several finds for, prior to the destruction, refuse had clearly been thrown down the slope.
    South of the brick building, a sherd of black glazed stoneware was found among a circular spread of daga fragments. A trench was excavated and 6 inches (15 cm’s) below the surface a thin and very broken floor of poor quality daga was revealed, immediately beyond the edge of the daga spread. This rested on 2 inches (5 cm’s) black earth over natural quartz gravel. The fill above the floor consisted almost entirely of broken daga fragments in a black humic earth and, outside the limit of the floor, rested directly on natural gravel.
    DESCRIPTION OF FINDS
    Glazed Wares.
    The only imported ware to occur at Hartley (Chegutu) was the later seventeenth century Chinese black glazed storage jar (Mtoko (Mutoko) Class 6). This occurred at three different areas of the site as follows:
    1x large rim sherd with broken lug : surface, excavated hut.
    2x sherds (1 with matt exterior glaze) : fill above floor, excavated hut.
    6x sherds, 5 stratified : from Southern excavation on slope of hill outside eastern wall.
    4x sherds (all with matt exterior glaze), 1 stratified : Northern excavation on slope of hill outside eastern wall.
    Local Wares
    The sherds from the Hartley (Chegutu) site (Fig. 4) are far too few for meaningful analysis. There was not a single decorated sherd and few rim sherds fall within the range of the Mtoko (Mutoko) assemblage and include poorly beaded and bevelled types. The only two profiles that could be reconstructed are illustrated in Fig. 4; 5, 16. They would also fit the Mtoko (Mutoko) assemblage.
    Fig. 4. Local Pottery
    5. Bowl with constricted opening. Coarse brown mat exterior. Humic topsoil, Bank.
    16. Shouldered pot with outward bevelled rim. Brown mat. South end of the midden.
    Glass
    The three glass beads are identical to those of the Mtoko (Mutoko) site:

    1. 3 x 4mm. opaque Indian red oblate: beneath floor of excavated hut.


    1. 6 x 4mm. opaque white cylinders, fused together: lower level beside floor of excavated hut

    From the southern excavation outside the eastern wall came six irregular, formless fragments of glass so decayed that the opaque, grey white, devitrified patina exceeds the thickness of the fresh, bright blue to grey green core, revealed on breakage. These appear to be a glass waste rather than fragments of a vessel.
    Glazed Wares. Collected from site vicinity in 2010. (C Dunbar)

    Grinding Stone so close to Maramuca (C Dunbar)
    CONCLUSIONS
    The architecture of the Mtoko (Mutoko) earthworks clearly shows that they were never intended primarily for defence. They are sited on low, level and easily accessible ground overlooked by hills and make no use of any natural defensive feature in the vicinity, while the very long perimeters would have required an enormous garrison for adequate defence. The low banks, even if a palisade were added, are scarcely immune from storming, while the ditches are, at least in the lesser enclosure, rudimentary and shallow while their defensive function is minimised, if not negated, on the south where a terrace separates them from the bank. In the Hartley (Chegutu) site there are no ditches at all. Further, the two Mtoko (Mutoko) earthworks are not complimentary and, from their siting, could lend each other virtually no support. They clearly fulfilled identical functions but separately and independently. The interiors contained only the simplest structures of pole and daga and probably few of these. The daga was thick, massive and frequently covered with a thin, fine daga skim and wash. There was no trace of post holes or foundations and the only floor was a poor daga on a sand base. The excavations were not sufficiently extensive to recover a plan, but the plane surface of the largest daga fragments seem to indicate straight walls. Nevertheless, the basic architecture of ditch, bank and bastion has a clear military basis and, coupled with the absence of interior structures, would seem to indicate that these two earthworks were intended for secure bulk storage, that they were in fact open, unroofed warehouses. That a considerable amount of trade was conducted from them is clear from the finds of imported beads, wire and glazed wares from the small area excavated. From the very close basic similarity of the architecture at the Hartley (Chegutu) site there can be little doubt that it fulfilled an identical function; though, from its siting within a gold bearing area and so close to ancient workings, one would suspect that the occupants were not only trading but were also directly involved in gold production. Here the scarcity of imported finds suggests both a shorter occupation and a smaller quantity of trade than occurred at the Mtoko (Mutoko) site.
    The variety of glazed wares affords excellent dating evidence at Mtoko (Mutoko) and gives a firm date within the seventeenth century for both sites. The Mtoko (Mutoko) site possibly spans the whole century for the Class 2 ware first occurs with Class 1 (late Ming porcelain) in the initial silting of the ditch and both occur most commonly in the early seventeenth century levels of Fort Jesus. There is no reason to suppose that they may not have been traded with the interior at that time. Late seventeenth century wares first occur in the later ditch fill at Mtoko (Mutoko), while black glazed stoneware, the only dateable import at the Hartley (Chegutu) site, though a simple ware popular for a long period, is commonest in the late seventeenth century at Fort Jesus.
    All the evidence so far adduced has been purely archaeological. The readily available contemporary documentary evidence enables both sites to be identified and precisely dated, confirming the archaeological evidence. Fr. Joao dos Santos O.P., who was in the interior in 1587, says, in 1609, (Theal, VII p. 270) that at the fairs of Masapa, Luanze and Manzove: “the residents of Sena and Tete have houses called churros, where they store their merchandise and from which they sell it and send it to be sold throughout the country”. At this time Luanze already had a Dominican church, mentioned subsequently by several seventeenth century authors. The location of Luanze is described by Diogo de Couto, writing at almost the same time as dos Santos
    (Theal VI p. 368). “There are three markets where the Portuguese go to trade for gold and sell their merchandise . . . the first is called Luanhé and it is about thirty five leagues from Tete to the south. It is between two rivers which when they unite are called Nausovo, and the said place is ten leagues from each of these rivers.” The old Spanish league equalled 2.63 miles (4.2 km’s), which would make Luanhé 92 miles (148 km’s) from Tete and 26 miles (41.8 km’s) from the rivers. The Mtoko (Mutoko) site lies 93 miles (149.7 km’s) from Tete in a direct line. The rivers referred to must be the Nyadire and Ruenya which both join the Mazoe. The site is 24 miles (38.6 km’s) from the Ruenya and 19 miles (30.6 km’s) from the Nyadire, distances slightly less than de Coutos’, but this must occur as the rivers are never more than 45 miles (72.4 km’s) apart. On this evidence, there can be very little doubt that the Mtoko (Mutoko) site is the site of Luanze. Abraham (1962) has made brief mention of a site at Mt. Chitomba, 13 miles (8.1 km’s) north east of the Mtoko (Mutoko) site, which he identified with Luanze. A more recent visit by the present author and Mr. Abraham yielded no evidence of occupation or structures and showed that this is almost certainly not the case.
    Pedro Barretto de Rezende described Luanze in more detail in 1634 (Theal II p. 416-417). “The fort of Luanze before mentioned, where the Portuguese hold a market is in the lands of Mocaranga, forty leagues from Tete. It is only a palisade of stakes, filled up inside with earth, allowing those within to fight under cover. The stakes are of such a nature that when they have been two or three months in the ground they take root and become trees which last many years.
    “The site of this fort inside is like a large terrace, being a hundred fathoms (brassas) in circumference, where the captain resides, who is elected by the captain of Mocambique, and with him the Portuguese and Christians who may be trading in these parts.” The circumference of the large Mtoko (Mutoko) earthwork is 1184 feet (361 m’s), that of the smaller, 720 feet (219 m’s). The Portuguese brassa equals 7.21 feet.(2.2 m’s). The circumference of the smaller earthwork thus corresponds absolutely exactly with de Coutos’ measurements. The description seems to indicate that the interior of the “fort” had few structures and that the earth (actually sun dried brick) bank was of subsidiary importance to a palisade – which may explain the small size of the bank – excavation however, showed no postholes nor was there any indication of the bank being supported by any such palisade.
    Luanze, Masapa (near Mt. Darwin) and later Dambarare (in the Mazoe (Mazowe) area) formed the most important trading fairs of the Portuguese for most of the seventeenth century, until the 1680’s when the reigning Changamire gradually caused their abandonment. By 1695 he had driven the Portuguese completely from the present lands of Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).
    Abraham (1961a) has demonstrated convincingly, using Portuguese records and oral tradition together, that the area known to the Portuguese as Maramuca lies between the Umfuli and Umsweswe rivers, east of the Chakari river. The Hartley (Chegutu) site lies in the northern corner of this area. Manoel Barretto describes Maramuca in 1667 thus: “Maramuca is the name of a great district of kingdom of upper Mocaranga . . . This kingdom is the richest in gold known”. He goes on to give an account (Abraham 1961a) of the trading concession held there by one Goncalo Joao in the early 1660’s, whose headquarters were attacked and pillaged very shortly after by two traders whose monopoly he had superseded. Maramuca was thereafter closed to the Portuguese. According to this account Joao was unprepared and had no chuambo (i.e. fortification or defence). Abraham’s informants told him of traditions that the Portuguese lived close to Chivare Hill. This rests solely on recently recorded oral traditions and no further evidence has been found to support it. Hitherto, no early Portuguese remains, except for the Bay Horse ivory, have ever been found in this area.
    The Hartley (Chegutu) site seems to provide archaeological confirmation of Abraham’s identification of the area of Maramuca and it may well be the site of Joao’s headquarters, as this appears to have been the only Portuguese settlement in Maramuca, while the date is supported by the imported stoneware. The question of the defences appears somewhat inconsistent – yet there is no doubt that the Hartley (Chegutu) site would have been easily stormed particularly if it lacked a palisade. There is certainly some indication that the huts within had been purposely destroyed.
    Previous to the discovery of the Hartley (Chegutu) and Mtoko (Mutoko) sites, the only indisputable Portuguese sites known in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) were six earthworks close together on, or near, the Angwa river 30 miles (48 km’s) north east of Sinoia (Chinhoyi). They resemble the sites described – straight rectangular earthwork banks from 160 feet (48.7 m’s) to 200 feet (61 m’s) long, the largest surrounded by a further bank and ditch from 320 feet (97.5 m’s) to 350 feet (106.7 m’s) in length. All had a single central building raised on artificial mounds, comparable to the Hartley (Chegutu) building. In place of the four projecting bastions in the centre of each face at Hartley (Chegutu) and Mtoko (Mutoko), the Angwa river earthworks seem usually to have had two bastions projecting from diagonally opposite corners of the earthwork. Thus they have the same basic plan as those of Mtoko (Mutoko) and Hartley (Chegutu) but with this important distinction. Architecturally, it thus seems safe to place them in a separate group from those of Hartley (Chegutu) and Mtoko (Mutoko), probably of a somewhat different date. Much of the archaeological evidence has been destroyed over the past seventy years and they have never been properly excavated. A single sherd of Chinese porcelain with a blue and white interior and a chocolate glazed exterior, found on the surface during a visit by the present author, is of late seventeenth century to eighteenth century date and was absent at Hartley (Chegutu) and Mtoko (Mutoko). This agrees with the tentative identification of the Angwa river site with the minor Portuguese fair of Ongo (Axelson, 1960) which enjoyed a brief period of prosperity in the early 1690’s before being abandoned before Changamire, to be one of the few sites to be reoccupied in the early eighteenth century.
    Turning to the significance of the present sites in the local Iron Age context, we have in the beads a series that can be said with certainty to represent Portuguese trade goods, Beads are described by de Couto in 1634, referring specifically to the fairs in Monomatapa’s kingdom, as being, with cloth, the principle item of trade. “They also take for this trade some small beads made of potters clay, some green and others blue and yellow, with which neckets are made. . .” This description exactly tallies with the beads recovered at Mtoko (Mutoko). The first mentioned are the Indian reds, and in fact the order in which de Couto lists them virtually reflects the proportions in which they are found. The Mtoko (Mutoko) bead series is identical in colour, proportions, quality, size, opacity and preservation to Robinson’s Group II at Khami (Robinson, 1959) recovered from all levels of the excavations of the Hill Ruin, though the earlier Group I (into which the single transparent white bead and a few very small Indian red beads from Mtoko (Mutoko) would fit) is “better represented in the lower levels”.
    Robinson has suggested that the Group II beads of Khami are Portuguese imports (Robinson, 1959). Though only 10 beads of this series, belonging to the corresponding Zimbabwe Period IV deposits, were recovered in 1958 Zimbabwe excavations, they are again considered as Portuguese imports. (Robinson, 1961). This origin is now proved by the beads from Mtoko (Mutoko).
    Imported porcelain of the Wai Li period has been recovered from sealed deposits resting on floors adjoining two huts at the Hill Ruin, Khami (Robinson, 1959, 1961a). This is the Class I ware of Mtoko (Mutoko). A soft earthenware with blue and white glaze, recovered with this porcelain from one of these Khami huts (Robinson, 1961a), is a Glass 1 ware of Mtoko (Mutoko) (only two other imported wares were recovered from Khami – a German stoneware, possibly sixteenth century and a green glazed jar rim, probably seventeenth century Egyptian). Robinson has suggested that the imported wares may represent the loot of Changamire’s people in the campaigns of the 1690’s and in fact has given this considerable weight in dating the Khami Hill ruin to the very beginning of the eighteenth century. Using historical evidence Abraham (1961b) has questioned the date. The present archaeological evidence shows that these wares and the glass beads were being imported in quantity into the interior as trade goods at least by the mid seventeenth century. There now seems little reason to suppose that they were not able to reach Khami by that date.
    Comparison of the local wares with pottery from the other Iron Age sites in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) is difficult for, except in Inyanga (Nyanga) district, there has been no excavation of any sites of comparable date in Mashonaland.
    Robinson (1965) has described pottery from two ruins in the Zambezi valley, Ruswingo wa Kasekete and Mutota’s Ruin. The former has been considered (Whitty, 1959) to be in part seventeenth century Portuguese. Characteristic features of the pottery include lavish graphite burnishing, developed rims and polychrome decoration, all of which compare more closely with Period IV Zimbabwe pottery and Khami pottery than with that from the Mtoko (Mutoko) site. The complete absence at Mtoko (Mutoko) of polychrome band and panel ware, characteristic of Khami and other similar ruins, supports the association by Robinson of this ware with the Rozwi, for seventeenth century Luanze was outside the Rozwi area. It is interesting that a sherd of an incised polychrome bowl with graphited interior was found on the surface of an Angwa River earthwork, which may again indicate that these date from the early eighteenth century after the Rozwi Changamire had occupied this area.
    However, the basic pottery forms of the Mtoko (Mutoko) site do echo those of the Khami Ruin wares – particularly the tall necked pots. There the resemblance ends. The heavy rolled rims, fine finishes and lavish decorations characteristic of the Khami Ruin wares and, to a lesser extent, of the related wares from Zimbabwe and the Zambezi valley are completely absent. The Mtoko (Mutoko) pottery is all simpler and coarser. The closest comparable pottery is probably the Inyanga (Nyanga) Lowlands ware which by Summers’ dating (1958) is contemporary with the Mtoko (Mutoko) site. However, the concave necks, shouldered pots, graphite burnishing and the rarity of other burnishing – all features of the Lowland wares – make this comparison far from absolute.
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    I would like to thank Mr. J. S. Kirkman of Fort Jesus, Mombasa for his help in identifying the glazed wares. Mr. D. P. Abraham was of great assistance in visiting his Mt. Chitomba site and in discussing the written evidence for Luanze’s location. The Mining Commissioners of the Rhodesian (Zimbabwean) Ministry of Mines and Lands first drew the attention of the Historical Monuments Commission to both areas and this Ministry also prepared a geological report on, and assayed the samples from, the Mtoko (Mutoko) site. Mr. F. P. du Toit of the Department of Conservation and Extension investigated samples of the bricks from the Hartley (Chegutu) site.
    Note: Corrections to place names and from miles to km’s I have done. (C Dunbar)


    Seventeenth Century Portuguese Earthworks in Rhodesia: Maramuca (Hartley (Chegutu))

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    Re: Old Portuguese Ruins in Southern Rhodesia

    Libros antiguos y de colección en IberLibro
    PIRINGANI: PORTUGUESE SETTLEMENT IN ZIMBABWE

    Written by Chris Dunbar
    So to Piringani (Piringani: 16°59' 48.63"S 30°11' 27.97"E), in the north west of Zimbabwe, in the farm lands of Doma, I went. Rumour had it that there was a Lemon forest and that it was marked and known by the local farmers and the Department of National Monuments.
    I could not find any rock / stone or mud ruins at this site but did find the lemon forest. The trees have self propagated from the original stock, which is believed to have been planted by the Portuguese Friars. The Lemons were planted to assist with the health and well being of the settlers at this settlement.
    I am told by the locals along the Angwa River (which is about twenty Km's from Piringani) that the forts at Angwa are down to the foundations and no walls are left standing, but that the Lemon Forests along the Angwa are very spectacular and hold many more trees then at the Piringani Site.
    The trees are still successfully bearing a number of fruit, Piringani, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar

    I was at the Angwa (Angoe) but was not able to get to the sites, the lemon forest at Piringani / Ditchwe site is a little south east of those forts.


    The Lemon Grove, Piringani, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar


    The trees are still successfully bearing a number of fruit, Piringani, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar


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